How are sports injuries classified and managed?
- Direct and Indirect
Direct are caused by an external force to the body. Example collision, Area of contact will be injured; this could lead to fracture, dislocations or sprains. I
Indirect caused by an intrinsic force (Within the body), Normally occur from extensive movements, fault in execution, ballistic movement. Result of extensive strain on mussels, ligaments or tendons. Example: muscle tear.
-Soft and Hard Tissue
Hard tissue are those involving bones, Soft tissue injuries include damage to all tissue other than bones and teeth. (e.g. Mussels, ligaments and skin).
Overuse injuries are sustained from continuous or repetitive stress, incorrect equipment, or too much training.
-Tears, Sprains, Contusions
Tears and sprains are the most common, Tear occurs; tissue is stretched intensively, Tears include strains or sprains.
Sprains only occur in ligaments (Bone to Bone). Will affect joint stability. Sprains classified as 1st to 3rd Degree (3rd being the worst).
Strains affect muscles/tendons, Stretched or torn. Can be classified as 1st to 3rd Degree.
Contusions (or bruise) caused by sudden blow to body. Internal bleeding can continue for a long time, causes formation of haematoma as blood clots in tissue.
-Skin Abrasions, Lacerations, Blisters.
Abrasions; falling on dry/hard ground. Pain, shallow bleeding, obvious symptoms. Dirt + foreign objects may enter; needs to be cleaned/removed. Treatment very crucial to sterilise
Lacerations; irregular tear in flesh. Can be deep, and easily infected. Require cleansing, referral to doctor. Can use gauze pad + pressure to prevent bleeding. If to mouth, check no teeth dislodged, rinse with antiseptic, use ice.
Blisters; collection of fluid within skin, can contain blood or clear fluid. Occur from new eqip, overuse, friction. Rest for approx. 24hrs. If fluid to be removed, use sterile needle, drain and apply antiseptic. If blisters open; wash area, apply antiseptic, dress. Blister block for healing process.
- Inflammatory Response: Beginning of the healing period. (3-4 days) Phase 1: Inflammatory (24-72 hours)
Increased blood flow and fluids at the sight of injury. Pain redness, loss of function of the injured area.
Phase 2: Repair + Regenerative stage (3 days to 6 weeks)
- Elimination of debris. Formation of new fibres. Production of scar tissue
Phase 3: Remodelling Process (6 Weeks to more)
Increased scar tissue. Formation of new tissue to strengthen and develop. If return is too sudden it may result in a worse injury.
When injury is sustained – reduce swelling, ease pain and prevent further injury. Use RICE.
R – Rest
I – Ice
E – Elevation
Hard tissue injuries are injuries to the bone. Examples include fractures or dislocations.
Can be classified in simple and compound and complicated.
Simple – Break is under the skin.
Compound – Produces through the skin
Complicated – Bone damages through a major nerve, organ or blood vessel.
Management: Immobilizing injured area and following DRSABCD
Is the displacement of a bone at a joint.
-TOTAPS : When one level can not be completed stop there and treat injury do not keep going.
T - Talk to the injured person to determine what happened.
O - Observe the injured person and any irregularities in limbs and the suspected injured area, e.g. compare injured left to right side where possible.
T - Touch the suspected injured area to determine severity of the injury.
A - Active movement, by the trainer, of the injured area to determine ability to return to play.
P - Passive movement by the athlete of the injured area to allow a decision to return to play.
S - Skills assessment by trainer, coach and player to determine ability to return to play.
How does sports medicine address the demands of specific athletes?
- Medical Conditions