1. Describe in detail Descartes two proofs for God’s existence. Plus give the two definitions to clear and distinct.
Descartes have two proofs for God’s existence. The first proof of God existence is Ontological proof. This is not original proof from Descartes; this is taken from St. Anselm, a 12th century philosopher. Ontological proof is the idea of God signifies a perfect being. The very idea of perfection implies existence to speak of non-existence perfection is to engage contradictions. Something that exist and does not exist at the same time, for example an apple cannot be an orange. Similarity, a triangle can’t exist without three sides. A triangle has three sides that we clearly and distinctly know that affirms its existence. The second proof of God existence is Causation proof which is how things come to exist. Based on Ontological proof, then it moves to prove the existence of other beings in the world. There are 4 parts to Causation proof, part 1 is something cannot come from nothing. It cannot come from some lesser or imperfect. Part 2 is things that cannot proceed from an imperfect nature/essence. Part 3 is even if I were potentially perfect; the idea of perfection cannot come from a potentially perfect being.
Lastly, part 4 is everything effect must proceed or come from something that actually exists. Clear is that which is apparent/present to an attentive mind. Distant is that which is precise and different from all other things that the all think contains which is clear.
2. Describe in detail good sense/reason. How do humans differ? Is it by good sense according to Descartes or something different?
Reason is man’s most equitable divine endowment. Meaning it’s the same to all of us. It’s the ability to judge correctly and to distinguish the truth from the false. Reason is divinely given by God. The ability to reason isn’t enough, we must use it. We must use capacity to reason for good or bad. As humans we differ in how we use our reason. Some humans use reason for good and some humans use reason for bad. The deductive method ties in with good sense/reason. The method says never accept something as true unless you know it’s true, divide the difficulties into as many parts as possible, think in an orderly fashion, make lists and review and revise so nothing is omitted. 3. Describe in detail Descartes method and why he believes a method with fewer steps is best? And what is the foundation of Descartes’ philosophy and how does it differ from Augustine’s philosophy?
Descartes method is to seek a method that shouldn’t have many laws but have few steps. The use of a method can elevate an average mind above the rest, and Descartes considered himself a typical thinker improved by the use of his method. In this method, Descartes tackles the problem of skepticism. Descartes started his line of reasoning by doubting everything, he started to see the world from a fresh perspective, clear of any preconceived notions. There are 4 rules for his method. The first rule is to never accept anything as true unless you know it is true. The second rule is to divide the difficulties into as many parts as possible. The third rule is to think in an orderly fashion, move from the simplest things to the most complex. Lastly, rule 4 is to make lists, revise and review the list so that nothing is omitted. This is considered the logical sequence of reason. Descartes foundation is “I Think Therefore I Am” which would differ from St. Augustine’s Foundation, which is “that which judges is higher than that’s being judged”. They both differ from each other because Marx believes that proof of substance, things itself by reasoning. Meaning that if a person have a test coming up and thinks that they will fail it then they will fail the test and not do as good as they should have. Meanwhile, St. Augustine believes that reasoning…