Essay about Philosophy 160

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Study Guide for Introduction to Philosophy Midterm
1. What does “philosophy” literally mean? Philosophy literally means the love of wisdom
2. What do the terms, epistemology, metaphysics and ontology mean? Epistemology means the nature of knowledge, Metaphysics is the nature of ultimate reality i.e. god, soul, and substance. Ontology is the ‘what is, how it is, and what makes it what it is’ form of philosophy.
3. Who were the Sophists? What characteristics define them? Sophists are wandering teachers who are hired to give speeches i.e. Gorgias. They care more about the money received from their speeches than truth. They give speeches have students memorize it so that it maybe taught later.
The Meno
1. What question begins the Meno? How does Socrates respond? How is this question eventually answered? Meno begins dialogue in Meno by asking, “can virtue be taught?” Socrates responds by asking if you do not know what something is, how could I know what qualities it possesses. This question is eventually answered by Socrates saying virtue cannot be taught i.e. good people have terrible children.
2. What’s the difference between an example and a definition? Why is a definition more helpful? An example is a thing characteristic of its kind or illustrating a general rule. A definition includes everything that should be included and excludes everything else. A definition is more helpful because it excludes everything not pertinent.
3. Why does Meno compare Socrates to a Torpedo Fish? What is meant by this? How does Socrates respond? Meno compares Socrates to a Torpedo Fish because he believes him to be overbearing and hurtful to those around him. Torpedo Fish numb others and so does Socrates. It also is an insult to Socrates’ ugliness. Socrates responds calmly by stating Meno only called him this to revel his own beauty. Furthermore he says he does not have to answer why he perplexes people.
4. What is Meno’s Paradox? What is the doctrine of recollection? How does recollection respond to Meno’s Paradox? How does the doctrine of recollection reflect the Socratic Method? Meno’s Paradox states one you cannot learn what you know because you already know it and two you cannot learn what you don’t know because you wont know if you learn it. The doctrine of recollection states the soul is immortal. In a prior life it lives in the realm of perfection with perfect knowledge. We forgot this knowledge at birth and our life’s task is to remember, Socrates response to Meno’s argument formed this idea from priest and priestesses. The doctrine of recollection reflects the Socratic method by the Socratic method is the way of fulfilling the doctrine of recollection; it is a tool to figure out our life’s task. The Socratic method a form of inquiry and discussion between individuals, based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to illuminate ideas.
5. According to Socrates, how do we know virtue can’t be taught? How might this argument be an example of Socratic Irony? We know virtue cannot be taught according to Socrates because there are no teachers of virtue. Socratic irony is pose of ignorance assumed in order to entice others into making statements that can then be challenged. This argument is an example of socratic irony because good people have bad children, calls the parents of Athens bad parents.
The Apology
1. What charges