Absolutism is the system of government in which the ruler believes they have absolute power over the state. While Absolutism may have been popular among rulers such as Louis XIV and Charles I, classic philosophers such as Locke and Rousseau would be against the idea of Absolutism, stating how it does not meet the standards of a good and civil society, while Hobbes would be for the idea because it keeps order and peace among people. Between all three philosophers, it is not the idea of absolutism that changes, but instead it is the idea of human nature society. John Locke wrote shortly after the time of Charles I. He saw the aftermath of Charles I and how it was much more peaceful and civil than during Charles’ reign and would stand against the idea of Absolutism. He does not believe in the fairness of an absolute monarchy nor should it exist in civil society: “Hence it is evident, that an absolute monarchy, which by some men is counted the only government in the world, is indeed inconsistent with civil society, and so can be no form of civil government” (Locke, 289). Locke believes that an absolute monarchy would not match the characteristics of civil society because if a monarch became absolute then no one could pass judgment upon him or her. Locke believes in an equal society where no one is above the law, and that is why he has an issue with Absolutism. In this system, the monarch has put himself above the law. Locke states, “For he being supposed to have all, both legislative and executive power in himself alone, there is no judge to be found, no appeal lies open to anyone” (Locke, 289). Locke is saying that if a monarch has all the power, than no one can challenge him when he does wrong. Locke believes that everyone is equal and that people in government are no exception. Locke asks the question, “What fence is there, in such a state, against the violence and oppression of this absolute?” (Locke, 290). He asks, if no one can challenge the ruler, then what is to keep him from doing wrong? Who is to stand against oppression if no one has enough power? These are the main issues Locke raises against Absolutism. He believes that this system of government cannot stand in a civil society. Rousseau wrote around the time during the French Revolution, and saw what monarchy can do to a country. Rousseau would be against the idea of Absolutism for two reasons: virtue and fairness. Rousseau discusses in The Social Contract how he believes humans to be equal. He, along with Locke and Hobbes, believes this, but Rousseau also talks about the vanity of people. He states that vanity is our vice, and applauds virtue and Judaic Laws. His focus on virtue is one reason why he would be against absolutism. Absolutism deals with vices, in the sense that a monarch gives into greed in order to become all-powerful. Rousseau believes that a good society is virtuous, so if the leader of a country is giving into these vices, then there is no way the society can become good in Rousseau’s eyes. Rousseau discusses his idea of equality in the excerpt from The Social Contract, “Lawgiver.” Rousseau states in this excerpt, “He, therefore, who draws up the laws, has, or should have, no right of legislation, and the people cannot, even if it wishes, deprive itself of this incommunicable right, because, according to the fundamental compact, only the general will can bind the individuals” (Rousseau, 342). Rousseau is talking about democracy in this excerpt. He is stating that the man who creates the laws cannot enforce them, and only the people can create a lawful society. The only philosopher to agree with this idea is Thomas Hobbes, who wrote during Charles I reign and during war. Thomas Hobbes believes that man’s state of nature is naturally destructive and that the reason man created government is to create peace. He states, “Hereby it is manifest that during the time men live without a common power to keep…
Supporters in the 17th century were characterized by higher social ranks, and religions of absolution. The supporters justified their absolution by supporting their absolutist rule. There was a major criticism behind the government because with the absolution power it took power away from the government.
Henry IV was a protestant who converted to Catholic, because when he became King no one would listen to him. Jacques reached the people by his preaching of sermons. Peter the…
Absolutism – Western
Absolutism – belief which monarch rule by “divine right” with unrestricted power. Exp. One of the country that exert absolutism was France, under Louis XIV’s rule.
“Divine right” of Kings – The Kings were given rights by god and should not be questioned. A popular ex. would be monarchs in England and France (ie Louis XIV)
Nobility of the Swords – Opposite of the Nobility of Robes, they were the original nobles who have had their office in their family.
Nobility of the…
Philosophy Exam Review
Philosophy- Thinking about thinking or the love of wisdom
Normative- In aesthetics, a term to refers to an approach to defining art. A normative definition involves defining art according to specific standards, or norms.
Induction (Inductive reasoning) – A reasoning process that involves drawing a general conclusion from specific observations.
Logical Consistency- In logic, refers to statements that do not contradict each other
entered their reign differed. During Charles’s reign, ruling after Cromwell, there was to be no absolute monarch. This however did not last, as Charles’ dissolved the parliament in 1681. Louis began reigning when absolutism was not unfamiliar. In fact, Louis’ reign reached the zenith of absolutism, taking away all French culture. This selfish and self-seeking character was shared between both Louis and Charles, as they were very close in relationship and belief. The existence and idea of parliament was…
successor (Treasure, 1997). This is called Absolutism. Absolutism is defined as the political situation in which ultimate power of authority in the state was exercised by a king who claimed to rule by divine right (Spielvogel, 2011). According to the Webster dictionary, Absolutism is a political theory, that ultimate power should be vested in one person to have complete control over people and government. In other words, a ruler who rules his people with absolutism, rules until death and hands over his…
While absolutism was the best government in the eyes of the ruling king or queen, democracy was better because the need for rights and the spread of power was increasing. Absolutism was good in the respect that the ruling head could get ideas through faster and pass laws much quicker but democracy would ensure that rulers could not become ruthless dictators that went against his/her people.
These 3 documents one, two, and three were similar in because all three of them address why…
what makes an action practically rational?
Should I skip class, because I am doing well.
Kant asked what makes an action good or what makes an action practically rational
what to do, what action is need for some goal.
According to Kan'ts moral philosophy, it is defined as the capacity of a rational being to act according to principles (i.e., according to the conception of laws). Unlike the ethical intuitionism Kant never held that practical reason intuits the rightness of particular actions or moral…
St Paul falling from horse
Theme: dramatic, theatrical
Judith: being raped
Raped by father’ apprentice
Did Judith: very happy
Baroque in North= glory of King/ absolutism
Baroque in South= Counter- religious
Did Medici marry Henry IV
Portrait= Catharine de Medici
Body shape influenced by Greek sculpture
Rape of Saipan Women:
About Calvinist, wealth class, merchant
monarchs in the late 16th/early 17th centuries need new sources of income?
Why did monarchs wish to get their income without the permission of the nobility?
2. Explain the role that each of the following played in the failure of England achieving absolutism, as well as the success of the French:
· Religion - Religion
· Parliament/Tradition - Estates…