What are the different branches of philosophy, and what are they about?
The six branches that are used in philosophy are metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, logic, aesthetics, and both political and social philosophy. Metaphysics is based around studying the ultimate characteristics of reality or existence. When Metaphysics is used it involves discussing borderlines of self-realization and the concepts of the nature of reality and life. What is the meaning of life? Who are you? Epistemology is the study of knowledge, identifying and developing criteria and methodologies for what we know and why we know it. It questions everything we know and how we came to know of it. It explores the “what is truth?” and “What do we believe?” questions. When studying Ethics you look into your own morals and values. “How should we treat other people?” and “How do we decide on the moral rightness of social issues?” Topics like religious values and personal beliefs come into play with Ethics. Aesthetics is the study of beauty and art. Every person has a different perspective of what both may be. It also helps us accept what other people may consider beautiful and or artistic. It makes us realize that we can put what other people think into thought. Political and social philosophy involves the study of social values and political forms of government. Questions such as “who has the right to exercise power?” or “what is justice?” is very important. Putting these questions to use can help us speak out against what we believe is both right and wrong. All of these branches help us to answer questions in every day life. What is beautiful and artistic to us? Who am I? They all tie together to help us answer very important questions.
Describe and explain the steps in the critical-thinking process.
The critical thinking process is basically stating your initial point of view. You definitely need to know your view on the subject. This will help you and whomever understand it more clearly. First, however, you must explain this point of view and what you feel for it. Giving examples helps paint a clear picture of understanding. Then explore more in depth this point of view. Next identify your assumptions and and show where you are biased in your views so you don't violate a fallacy. Offering evidence, examples, and reasons can help. Considering others peoples views always helps. It may teach you something new and help understand other things. Going through these steps may also change our opinion on things once we come to a conclusion. When coming to a conclusion, however, we must always accept the consequences.
Describe the philosophical concerns of the pre-Socratic philosophers. How did their views differ from each other?
In greek culture religion and believing in the gods were very important, Through the stories that were passed down the people were taught morals and life lessons. Just like fairytales such as Pinocchio, it taught them a lesson. The stories of the gods were questioned by philosophers. Why did people need to believe these stories and conform it? These philosophers all had their own perspective. These questions all came about during the “Axial Period”. Many different people were asking questions: Anaxagoras proposed that the universe was composed of matter in motion. Pythagoras believed in the mathematical aspect that the universe had mathematical relations. And Parmenides expressed in the necessary need for flux in the universe for a constant flowing motion.
7. In what way could the period of about 800 to 200 BCE be considered the “Axial Period” of history? What does this term mean? This period of time happened during 500 B.C. and was coined the term “the turning point of civilization.”. It was the time when