Age of Enlightenment , that typically addresses the questions of the origin of
society and the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual. Social
contract arguments typically posit that individuals have consented, either
explicitly or tacitly, to surrender some of their freedoms and submit to the
authority of the ruler or magistrate (or to the decision of a majority), in exchange
for protection of their remaining rights. The question of the relation between
natural and legal rights, therefore, is often an aspect of social contract theory.
The most important contemporary political social contract theorist is John Rawls,
who effectively resurrected social contract theory in the second half of the 20th
century, along with David Gauthier, who is primarily a moral contractarian.
Under Marxism, outdated class structures were supposed to be overthrown
with force instead of being replaced through patient modification. It held that as
capitalism has succeeded feudalism, it too will be removed by a dictatorship of
the workers called socialism, followed quickly and inevitably by a classless
society which governs itself without a governing class or structure. It was jointly
developed in the 19th century by two lifelong German friends living in London –
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels and it forms the foundation of communism.
Classical liberalism is a political philosophy and ideology that emerged as a
response to the Industrial Revolution and urbanization in the 19th century in
Europe and the United States. It shares a number of beliefs with other belief
systems belonging to liberalism, advocating civil liberties and political freedom,
limited government, rule of law, and belief in free market. Classical liberals were
more suspicious than conservatives of all but the most minimal