Phy Exam45 Essay

Submitted By deberly-ruiz
Words: 2776
Pages: 12

March 25, 2015
Respitory
Lungs
Right lung, 3 lobes, left lung 2 lobes
Nasal then lorayn then trachie then to two parts
Main part ofr gas exchange is wall of avelos and capillary which surronds the alveroles
Pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood from right ventricle to lung tissure then becomes pulmonary arteriol then ulmonary capillary , pulmonary capillary surronds the alverous gas exchange or diffusion depends on some factos,
1. it depends on partial pressure of gas
2. depends on thickness of membrane
3. depends on surface area which is relayed to alverlar wall in some pathology condition b/c of thichkining of membrane and affected surface area can change the gas diffusion which is pahtology condition pic: 1. oxygen moves from higher con to lower, so o2 gets to capillary and binds to hemoglobin which carries for ovygens, co2 moves from higher con to lower concentration so from capillary to avelores
Emphysema
Big hole inside alveoli, no wall, the wall is important for gas excchnage, no wall no exchange, it decreases wall diffusion b/c we have decreases surface area
Fibrosis
Lung tissue is rigid, we have affected thickness of membrane, it becomes thicker and dereases the gas exchange
Hypertension
Mitral stenosis or reguratation we have pulmonary hypertension and edema (acc of fluid in lung tissue or intrastelial space) excess fluid makes membrane thicker; decrease gas diffusion
Anemia
Reduction in RBC number which is not able to carrie sufficient o2 to cells
Excercie
Muscle require more o2 supply, activation from capillary which decreases gas diffusion
Perfusion-limited exchange
The oxygen released into capillary depends on number of RBC and hemoglobin which carries the oxygen molecule to different cells, saturated RBS or hemoglobin cannot accept more or extra oxygen
Diffusion-limited excgange
Pathological condition with limited exchange, like pulmonary edema, and fibrosis
Respitory phy
TV, nomal breath
Inspiratory reseve volume:
Expitrartory reserve volume: max eliminated by lung
Residual vol: vol that remains in lung after max epiratory
Dead space:
Anaomic: those areas which cannot participate in gas exchange like nasal caviety, trache, primary, secondary, thertiary bronchi
Physiological: anatomic dead space plus those alveoli that cannt participate; know equation
Lung capacities
Inspiratory
Functional residual capacity
Vital calacity
Total lung capacity
Functional expiratory: .8 to 80%
When say obtractive lung diseases mens obstraction due to imflimaion and infection and irriatation of bronchi which close the airway such as asthmea which is inflammation of bronhi, in asthmea expiatory is difficult b/c of inflammation of respiratory airway cannot excrete co2 molecule esaillay, in asthmea or obstractive lung disease both the volume and capacity are both decreased; forced epitorty volume is decreased more than FEv, in repirory lung diseas lung tissue is damaged such as fibrosis and edema, in obstrcatve FEV is reduced more than FVC but in resperitive FEV is decreased less than FVC
Muscles
Diagraphm muscle, it seperates the thoracic from abd caviety, innervation is by phrenic nerve , organin is from cervical 3,4,5
During inspiration we should have contraction, because it pushes down, and makes larger space for lungs, contraction is extremely important
In MS, problem is mylanation of nerves, muscle becomes paralyzied, in severe condition can cause death
External intercoastal muscle
For inspition
For expertion we have relaxation of diagram muscle plus 3 abdominal muscle
Externa oblique abdominal
Internal oblique abdominal
Transverse abdomins muscle
Internal intercoastal muscle also participate for expertion
Aveloues contain 2 types of cells
Type 1: function: absorbs extra fluid or controls the humidity, plus is important for cell lining of internal environment of avelous
Type 2: bigger, larger, located more central, secretes substances we call it surfactant, function is to prevent the avelor…