Physical Science Chapter 3-4 Essay

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Pages: 5

PHS 101 Exam Review for Chapters 3, 4, & Gases

Chapter 3 Objectives

1. Define work and calculate for a given situation.
2. Recognize the units for work.
3. Define energy and understand its relation to work.
4. Distinguish between kinetic and potential energy.
5. Calculate the kinetic and potential energy of an object or body.
6. State the law of conservation of energy.
7. State the law of conservation of mechanical energies and apply to freely-falling objects.
8. Define power and calculate for a given situation.
9. Recognize the units for power.
10. Identify the various forms of energy and recognize examples of each.
11. Distinguish between alternative energy sources and renewable energy sources and identify examples of each.

Chapter 4 Objectives

1. Identify the major points of the kinetic molecular theory.
2. Distinguish between temperature and heat.
3. Define thermometer.
4. Describe the principle behind which bimetallic and liquid-in-glass thermometers work.
5. Give the b.p. and f.p. of water in all systems of measurement (oC, oF, K).
6. Relate the size of a single oF, oC, and K degree to each other.
7. Convert from one temperature to another.
8. Describe the relation between heat and molecular kinetic energy.
9. Recognize the units of heat.
10. Describe the thermal expansion properties of substances.
11. Define specific heat and latent heats (Lv and Lf) and use to calculate heat changes for a substance. 12. Define the three methods of heat transmission and recognize examples of each.
13. Distinguish between solids, liquids, and gases.
14. Describe the effects of heat and temperature on the molecular behavior of solids, liquids, and gases.
15. Distinguish phase changes.

Gases Handout Objectives

1. Understand how temperature is defined.
2. Understand the concept of pressure on a molecular basis.
3. Recognize the 2 ways in which pressure can be expressed and identify units of pressure.
4. Define volume.
5. State Boyle’s Law and predict how the pressure and volume of a gas vary with each another.
6. State Charles Law and predict how the volume of a gas varies with absolute temperature.
7. State Gay-Lussac’s Law and predict how the pressure of a gas varies with absolute temperature.
8. Predict how the pressure of a gas varies with changes in quantity of gas.
9. Apply Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures to a mixture of gases.
10. Recognize the conditions under which gases do not follow ideal gas behavior.

I. Multiple Choice

• Various concepts as outlined in objectives stated at beginning of each chapter handout.

II. Problems

A selection from the following:

• Calculate the amount of work performed in moving an object.

• Calculate the power used in performing work on an object.

• Calculate the kinetic energy of a moving object.

• Calculate the potential energy of an object of a certain elevation.

• Calculate the potential energy change of an object going through a change in elevation.

• Determine the amount of work performed in changing the kinetic and potential energy of an object

• Convert between temperatures in the Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin systems.

• Use specific heat values to deterfmine the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a given quantity of a substance.

• Use latent heat of fusion to determine the amount of heat required for a given amount of substance to undergo a phase change from solid to liquid.

• Use latent heat of vaporization to determine the amount of heat required for a given amount of substance to undergo a phase change from liquid to gas.

• Relate the total pressure and the partial pressures of gases in a mixture to one another.

Tables Provided:

• Formula Sheet

Sample Problems:

1. Consider a car empty on gas. If a force of 750 N is exerted in pushing the car 40.0 meters to a corner gas station in 50 seconds,

(a) What is the work done…