Development is often divided into specific domains, such as gross motor, fine motor, language, cognition, and social/emotional growth. These designations are useful, but substantial overlap exists. Studies have established average ages at which specific milestones are reached, as well as ranges of normality. In a normal child, progress within the different domains varies, as in the toddler who walks late but speaks in sentences early.
Genetic factors, environmental influences and psychological factors and disease can affect both a child's cognitive development and physical growth. This is why parents, doctors and teachers should routinely assess children's …show more content…
Social cognition is seen as being key to the learning process, as learning requires that a child be able to interact effectively with others. Play is one of the first social interactions that contribute to a child's ability to learn. Later, as a child becomes involved in different social activities with other children, he learns how to solve problems. Cultural influences also affect a child's cognitive development, one of the most persistent cultural influences being the school system.
Cognitive and social/emotional development: Cognitive and social/emotional development refers to the intellectual and psychological maturation of children as their physical development allows them to interact more with other people and the external world. There are multiple theories of these forms of development in children and adolescents; the oldest and most famous are those proposed by Freud, Piaget, and Erikson. All are based on clinical observations, but none has been tested in large groups of children. In general, these models are considered useful for describing aspects of development in some children, but none is universally applicable. Increasingly, appropriate attachments and nurturing in infancy and early childhood are recognized as critical factors in cognitive growth and emotional health. For example, reading to children from an early age, providing intellectually stimulating experiences, and providing warm and