Electrical power for transport was first used in the middle of the nineteenth century where electricity was one of the most preferred methods for vehicle transportation (Estartinventions, 2015). Electric Vehicle’s include road and rail vehicles, surface and underwater vessels, electric aircraft and electrically powered space vehicles. Electricity is being considered as an alternative to petroleum fuels as an energy source (Skwirk, 2015). A pure battery electric vehicle is considered a more efficient alternative to hydrogen fuel propelled vehicle as there is no need to convert energy into electricity since the electricity stored in the battery can power the electric motor (Hofstra, 2015). A disadvantage of electricity is that it can be costly to have it and depending on what you do or where you live it may be better to just use another form of power for example farmers who find electricity too expensive to use or install may use live stock to pull there wagons and use torches and candles instead of lights.
1 a) An AC electric motor in which the electric current in the rotor needed to produce torque is acquired by electromagnetic induction from the magnetic field of the stator winding is called an induction or asynchronous motor (Archive, 2015).
This type of motor contains two sets of windings (copper or aluminium wire coiled to form electromagnets). When the windings in the stator are energized currents are induced in the windings in the rotor (this invisible force is call induction (Edisontechcenter, 2015).
The two main parts of an induction motor are the Stator and Rotor. The Stator is the stationary part and the rotor is the rotating part. The Rotor sits inside the Stator. The small gap between rotor and stator is called the air-gap (Learnengineering, 2015).
Through the stacking of thin-slotted highly permeable steel laminations inside a steel or cast iron frame .a Stator is made the way the steel laminations are arranged inside the frame is shown in the following figure. (Learnengineering, 2015).
Compared to single phase power three phase power distribution requires lesser amount of copper or aluminium for transferring the same amount of power as (thus more economical). The size of a single phase motor is larger than that of a three phase motor of the same rating (Electrotechnik, 2015).
From three phase supply system a single phase system can be obtained, vice-versa is not possible. Single phase machines are not self-starting machines. On the other hand three phase machines are self-starting due to rotating magnetic field (Electricalquestionsguide,2015). The cost to install and maintain single-phase systems is substantially more expencvive than that of three phase systems (Linkedin, 2015). Single-phase motors have a lower range of efficiency three-phase motors and also have better starting torque. Three-phase motors have no inherent torque pulsations. Single-phase motors do have inherent torque pulsation (Energyexperts, 2015).
Electric induction motors that produce motion in a straight line rather than rotational motion are known as linear motors are. In a traditional electric motor, the rotor (rotating part) spins inside the stator (static part); in a linear motor, the stator is unwrapped and laid out flat and the "rotor" moves past it in a straight line (Explainthatstuff, 2015).
A Linear induction motor construction wise is similar to three phase induction motor in more ways than one as it has been depicted in the figure below (Electrical4u, 2015).
Linear motors are extensively used. Linear motors have been used for sliding doors and various similar actuators such as baggage handling and even drive large-scale bulk materials transport solutions (Force, 2015). Other uses include uses in sewage processing structure, extrusion pullers, medical scanning instruments, gate systems, and testing equipment for road surfaces