Essay on physio chap 1

Submitted By lilliekens
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Pages: 6

Chapter 1
The Study of Body Function
“To treat disease and injury appropriately, we must first understand the human body in its healthy state.”

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Chapter 1 Outline










Scientific Method
Homeostasis
Organ systems
Function and process
Ideas in physiology
Themes in physiology
The science of physiology
Discussion of scientific literature
Organs & Systems
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Human Physiology


Physiology: ‘knowledge of nature’







Pathophysiology:




study of how body works to maintain life
“Normal functioning of a living organism and its component parts, including all its chemical and physical processes.” emphasis is on cause and effect mechanisms

how physiological processes are altered in disease or injury Comparative Physiology:


comparing other vertebrates and invertebrates
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Physiological Systems


Organization of life


The cell is the basic unit of life



Cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms

Histology =Microscopic study of tissues
Primary tissues include muscle, nervous, epithelial, connective

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Organs


Are anatomical & functional units made of 2 or more primary tissues



Systems are groups of organs working together to maintain homeostasis










Nervous & Endocrine System
Musculoskeletal System
Circulatory System
Respiratory System
Immune System
Urinary System
Digestive System
Reproductive System
Integumentary System

(see Table 1.1)

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Fig. 1-2

Function & Process







Physiology integrates function and process! Why (Teleological) and How
(Mechanistic)
Form Fits Function
Emergent Properties=Whole is greater than the sum of its’ parts

Homeostasis

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Homeostasis


Maintenance of fairly constant internal conditions  Around physiological set points


Maintained primarily by feedback loops


Continuous ongoing processes
 Insulin & glucose levels
 Blood volume/pressure
 Body temperature

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Feedback Loops






Sensor:

Detects deviation from set point
(input signal)
Integrating center:
Determines response
(controller)
Effector:
Produces
response
(output signal)

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Negative Feedback Hormonal
Control of Blood Glucose

Fig 1.6
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Positive Feedback Systems


Action of effectors amplifies change




Blood clotting
Oxytocin: Childbirth & Labor
Lactation



Homeostasis=Dynamic
Constancy

Regulatory mechanisms:


Intrinsic control is built into organ being regulated



Extrinsic control comes from outside of organ



By nervous or endocrine systems
E.g. nervous control of body temperature

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Lack of Homeostasis=
Pathological Condition


Internal






Abnormal growth of cells
Autoimmune
Inherited
Failure of cell processes 

External




Toxic chemicals
Physical trauma
Foreign invaders:
Virus
 Bacteria
 Protozoan


Body-Fluid Compartments


Body has intracellular & extracellular compartments 





Intracellular
 Composed of cytoplasm and organelles
Extracellular
 composed of blood plasma & interstitial fluid Communication between intra and extracellular compartments occurs via osmosis/diffusion
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Table 1-2

Scientific Method

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Scientific MethodObservation and
Experimentation


1. Form a testable hypothesis about observations



2. Conduct & analyze experiments to test hypothesis 

3. Draw conclusions about whether or not results support hypothesis
4. Develop a theory
 = general statement explaining natural phenomena that is based on proven hypotheses/reproducible data



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Testing of Hypotheses



Use of Measurements, Controls &
Statistics

Involves:
 Independent & Dependent variable


Experimental & control groups



Quantitative blind measurements



Analysis of data using statistics



Peer-reviewed journals
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Scientific Literature


Peer-reviewed journal articles






Quality control
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