| Function | Pathway/ homeostatic imbalance | 1. OlfactorySensory (smell) | Purely sensory, carry afferent impulses for sense of smell.- tiny sensory nerves of smell which run from the nasal mucosa to synapse with the olfactory bulb | - Olfactory nerve fibers arise from the nasal cavity and pass through the cribriform plate to the synapse in olfactory bulb. Fibers of olfactory bulb neuron extends posteriorly to the frontal lobe to enter the cerebral hemisphere.- broken ethmoid bone or lesion of olfactory fibers= partial or total loss of smell also known as ansomia | 2. OpticSensory (vision) | Purely sensor, carry afferent impulses for vision | - Fibers come from the retina of the optic nerve which then passes through the optic canal. The nerve then converges to form the optic chiasm where the fibers and continue on the optic tracts to the thalamus and is synapse there. The thalamic fibers tthe occipital cortex where visual interpretation takes place- damage of the optic nerve may result in blindness, damage to visual pathway beyond the optic chiasm= partial loss, visual defects= anopisias | 3. OculomotorMotor | Chiefly motor nerves; contain a few proprioceptive afferents each nerve includes:- Somatic motor fibers -Parasympathetic autonomic fibers t-Sensory afferents which run from the same four extrinsic eye muscles to the brain | means eye mover, this nerve supplies four of the six extrinsic muscles that moves the eye- ( inferior oblique and superior, inferior, and medial rectus muscle) * Levator palpebrae= lifts eye lids/ sphincter puppillae= contracts pupil, lenses focusFibers extend from ventral midbrain and pass through bony orbit via superior orbital fissure to eye.- eye cannot be moved up down inward and at rest the eye rotates laterally because the action of the two extrinsic eye muscles not served by cranial nerves are unopposed, upper eyelid droops, and have double vision and trouble focusing on close objects | 4. TrochlearMotor | - supply somatic motor fibers to one of the extrinsic eye muscle, the superior oblique muscle | -fibers emerge dorsal midbrain, ventrally around the midbrain to enter orbit through superior orbital fissure along/ with 3.- trauma/paralysis = double vision and reduced ability to rotate eye infer laterally | 5. TrigeminalSensory (general sensation) | 1. ophthalmic: fiber runs from face to pons via superior orbital fissure2. maxillary division: fibers run from face to pons via foramen rotundum 3. mandibular: passé through skull via foramen ovale- loss of sensation- | three branches spring from this, the largest of the cranial nerves, it supplies sensory fibers to the face and motor fibers to the chewing muscle1. conveys sensory impulses from skin of anterior scalp, upper eyelid, and nose from nasal cavity mucosa, cornea and lacrimal gland 2. Conveys sensory impulses from nasal cavity mucosa, palate, upper teeth, ski of cheek, upper lip, lower eyelid 3. Anterior tongue except taste buds, lower teeth, skin of chin, temporal region of scalp. Supplies motor fibers, muscles of mastication. Stabbing pain from sec- minutes | 6.AbducensMotor | Supply somatic motor fibers to lateral rectus muscle and extrinsic muscle eye, convey proprioceptor impulses from the same muscle to the brain | Fibers leave inferior pons and enter orbit via superior orbital fissure to eyenerve controls the extrinsic eye muscles that abducts the eyeballs or turn it laterally – eye cannot be moved laterally, at rest affects eyeball rotates medially internal strabismus | 7.FacialSensory(Taste)/ Motor | Mixed nerves in charge of the face which has 5 major branches: temp. zy. Buccal, mandi., and cervical.- Conveys motor impulses f skeletal muscles except for chewing- transmit parasympathetic autonomic motot mpulses to lacriminal, nasal, palatine, submandibular, sublingual glads | A large nerve that innervates muscles of facial expressionFibers issues from pons- lateral of the nerve 6- enter temporal bone via…
* Glenohumeral joint paired with shoulder girdle to accomplish total range of movement in the shoulder
Week 4 – Brachial Plexus
* Nerve supply to upper limb
* Nerves coming out of spinal cord called anterior rami (C5-C8 & T1)
* Contains both sensory and motor neurons
* Prefixed brachial plexus – larger input from C4 and less input from T1 and none from T2
* Postfixed brachial plexus – larger input from T2 and less input from…
involvement of sensory receptors as well as the central nervous system in order to allow us to experience outside stimuli. The system that allows us to experience sensation is the sensory system.
The sensory system’s organs are the sense organs of the body. The purpose of the sensory system is to allow us to experience outside stimuli and identify alterations in the environment by sensory receptors and eyes, nose, ears, tongue, and skin, which are the sensory organs. The sensory system is actually…
filaments. Z-disc, h-zone and m line.
Sarcoplasmic reticulum location & function
Network of smooth E.R functions in regulation of intracellular Ca2+
Concept of nervous stimulus at the Neuromuscular Junction & what comprises the motor unit
Nerve impulse @axon terminal, Ach released. Binds to sarcolemma and electrical events lead to action potential.
Concept of prime movers, antagonists, synergists & fixators
Prime movers provide major force for a movement
Antagonists = oppose/reverse…
Some axons are covered with a fatty substance called myelin that acts as an insulator.
Theses myelinated axons transmit info faster than other neurons
Afferent nerves (arrive)
nerves that carry sensory signals to the CNS (sensory nerve) bring sensory input from the outside world
Nerves that carry motor signals from the central nervous to the skeletal muscles or internal organs
Stem like part of the brain that is connected to the spinal cord…
Nerve Impulses as
The College of New Jersey
April 30, 2013
By this time in our scientific understanding, the process of a nerve signal transmission is a well understood topic in the subject of biology. The most well-known facet of the process, known as the Hodgkin-Huxley Model, was proposed by Lloyd Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley in 1952. This model is electrically based. Hodgkin and Huxley suggested that a differential…
Cranial Nerves Summary
Nerves in Order
Levator palpebrae, superioris, superior, medial & inferior recti muscles
Parasympathetic to ciliary & pupillary constrictor muscles
Superior oblique muscle
Muscles of mastication
Sensory for head/neck, sinuses, meninges, & external surface…
The Brain and Cranial Nerves
One of the most complex and fascinating things in the human body is the brain. The body is "capable of almost everything, but it would not be possible, without the brain receiving information, and analyzing the information."
The brain is aware of its surroundings, via input from the spinal cord and cranial nerves. Cranial nerves with sensory functions allow us to smell and see. Nerves with both motor and sensory functions are responsible for everything from tasting…
NATIONAL CENTER FOR CASE STUDY TEACHING IN SC CE
Wearing on Her Nerves: Exploring the
Interrelation between the Nervous
and Muscular Systems
Kathleen G. Brown, Nursing Department
Sharon S. Ellerton, Biological Sciences and Geology
Queensborough Community College, City University of New York
Part I – Rise and Shine?
Kathy, a 20-year-old woman, awakens one morning to a tingling, numb sensation covering both of her feet. This has happened to her a number of times throughout the year…
divided into the sensory and motor division. The sensory division is mostly involved with physical sensation because of all the efferent nerve fibers that run through the body into the brain and spine. The PNS conducts all the impulses from the sensory receptors throughout the entire body.
Text Book – page 257
b. Name the specific receptors responsible for this process.
c. How does sensory impulse move throughout…
The human body is a unique and fascinating entity. There is not much notice taken of the features the human body is capable of. The brain is necessary to perform day-to-day actions, such as the ability to speak, and see amongst us. This brain is made up of simple mater (Pia mater, Arachnoid mater, Dura mater) and the cranial surface to protect the brain. We live our daily lives without acknowledging the importance of this organ, the brain, unless you’re a medical student of…