Class of Biomolecule
Lipids make up all cell membranes and are also a great source of energy. They also have polarity, some are polar and some are nonpolar.
Nucleic acid carries genetic material through generations. These are DNA and RNA, and the building blocks of DNA and RNA are nucleotides. They give us genetic material.
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. These amino acids have an R group that helps make up the structure of proteins. Proteins help make us up, and are also used as a source of energy.
Sugars are the monomers and building blocks of carbs. The major function of carbohydrates is to give us energy.
(Bozeman Science, 2011)
2a. A ketogenic diet is often used as a body weight reduction method by athletes that would like to lose weight, but not muscle size or strength. Most often it is used in sports such as wrestling, gymnastics, and body building as a method of weight management and weight control. A ketogenic diet requires that the daily carbohydrate intake is below 30g. A daily carbohydrate intake that is below 30g limits glucose availability to tissues, thus stimulating ketogenesis in the liver. Supplying the central nervous system and the heart with a high energy substrate is the primary function of ketosis (Paoli et al, 2012).
2b. There are many procedures around the world today that are designed to help athletes lose weight rapidly. Many of these procedures are very harmful to the body and may not only affect weight loss but also strength and power. The ketogenic diet is designed to help promote weight loss, but not affect strength and power. In the study that was performed in the article, the athletes who underwent the very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets lost weight further improving their body composition. They did not suffer from any negative changes in strength and performance. Associated with the VLCKD diets there was also appetite reduction due to proteins, reduction in lipid synthesis, an increase in lipolysis, an increase in fat metabolism, and an increased metabolic expenditure caused by gluconeogenesis. These can all be seen as therapeutic uses of ketogenic diets (Paoli et al, 2012).
2c. There are three factors that are the source of the conflicting results of the very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets. The first factor is the time needed for ketoadaption to occur which is approximately seven days. Most studies maintained VLCKD for less than two weeks, which was not enough time for full ketogenic metabolic adjustment. Since seven days are required for ketoadpation, that leaves only a few days for the ketosis effects to occur. The second factor is the usage or not usage of electrolyte supplementation. To maintain nitrogen balance a supplement that contains sodium and potassium is very beneficial. The studies that did not use supplements could have altered the results since they do not contain these two elements. The last factor that could have changed the results would be the protein intake. A protein intake of 1.2-1.7 g/kg/bw is required to maintain lean body mass. Many athletes who are trying to lose weight do not consume the appropriate amount of protein. That explains why athletes could potentially lose muscular strength and power (Paoli et al, 2012).
3a. Conjugated linoleic acid is a group of polyunsaturated fatty acids that exist as positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid often found in dairy products, beef, and lamb. There are multiple health benefits that are associated with CLA. Antiadipogenic, antidiabetogenic, antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic properties are often related to CLA. These health benefits are due mainly to isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12. Over ninety percent of the CLA intake in the diet is the c9-11 isomer. This is the major isomer in the natural foods we consume. CLA that has…