Physiology Notes Essay

Submitted By Dmorovati1
Words: 2493
Pages: 10

Anterior pituitary hormones Hypothalamus Actions
3. HGH HRH,somatostatin May cells
Adrenal gland
-cortex=aldosterone, cortisol, sex hormone
-medulla-epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine

The thyroid secretes: * Thyroxine (t4) * Triodothryonine (t3) * Needed for proper growth and development and are primarily responsible for determining basal metabolic rate. * Thyroid gland * Third hormone produced by thyroid gland: Calcitonin made by parafollicular cells. * reduce calcium levels in blood by 2 ways : 1) causes more calcium to be released into the urine (excretion of calcium in the kidneys) 2) stimulates calcium deposition into bone * Most of calcium comes from our bones. * * * * * * Diseases of the Thyroid (pg. 338) * * * Parathyroid Glands: * Embedded in the back of the thyroid gland. * Secrete parathyroid hormone * Hormone promotes a rise in blood calcium, by acting on bones, kidneys, and intestine. * Most important hormone in control of calcium levels of the blood. * * * * * * * * 11.6 Pancreas and other Endocrine Glands pp. 341
Pancreatic islets secrete 2 hormones: 1) Insulin- promotes lowering of blood glucose by bringing sugar into tissues & storage of energy in the form of glycogen and fat. 2) Glucagon- had antagonist effect that raise blood glucose concentration. * -stimulates liver to hydrolyze glucagon into glucose and release it into the blood * -stimulates gluconeogenesis, conversion of noncarbs into glucose * -stimulates lipolysis in adipose tissue so fat is released and used a fuel source instead of glucose.
The pancreas is both an endocrine and exocrine gland
Endocrine cells are located in islets of langerhans. * Alpha cells: secrete Glucagon hormone * Beta cells: secrete insulin * (skipped pineal gland) * 11.3 Pituitary Hormones (includes: anterior and posterior) * * Anterior Pituitary Hormones:
Produce/secrete its own hormones. Is regulated by hormones secreted by hypothalamus as well as feedback from the target gland hormones. * Hormones secreted by anterior pituitary are called TROPHIC HORMONES. (TROPHIC MEANS “FEED”)
These hormones are not food for their target organs, this term s used bc high concentration of the anteriory pituitary hormones cause their target organts to hypertrophy, while low levels call atrophy.
1. GROUWTH HORMONE (GH OR SAMATOTROPHIN): promotes movement of amino acids into cells and incorporation of them into protein, promoting overall tissue and organ growth. Growth of cartilage, bone, and synthesis of muscles result from a group of molecules (smoatomedins) produced by live under growth hormone stimulation.
Target tissue: most tissue
2. Thyroid- stimulating hormone (TSH): stimulated the thyroid gland to produce/secrete T3 and T4.
Target tissue: thyroid gland
3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids such as cortisol.
Target tissue: Adrenal cortex
4. Follice-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates grown of ovarian folliclein females and production of sperm cell in the testes of males. Target tissue: Gonads
5. Luteinizing hormone (LH) This hormone and FSH are collectively called gonadotropic hormones. In females, LH stimulates ovulation and conversion of ovulated ovarian follicle in a endocrine structure called a copus luteum. In males, LH is sometimes called interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH); it stimulates secretion of male sex hormone (testosterone) from intersistial cells in the testes.
Target tissue: Gonads
6. Prolactin (PRL) secretes in both males and females. Best known