Argument essay continued
It is very important in an Argument essay that a clear position is given as this controls the content of the entire essay.
The position statement should address the essay question The position statement should clearly identify whether the writer is arguing ‘Yes’ in response to the question, or ‘No’.
• Open your books to page 8.8 and look at your plan. • Using the essay topic from your debate, or one of your own choice, write down the position statement.
A position statement can be introduced by:
This essay will argue that……
It can be strongly argued that……
Is capital punishment effective in deterring violent crimes?
This essay will argue that capital punishment is/is not effective in deterring violent crimes.
Should public transport be encouraged in cities more than private transport?
It can be strongly argued that public transport should/should not be encouraged in cities more than private transport.
Is chocolate beneficial for health?
This essay will argue that chocolate is/is not beneficial for health. A debate uses spoken language and can use quite strong language
An essay must be objective and written in an impersonal style.
The topic sentences must be clear and must introduce the main argument of the paragraph.
full forms – no contractions, eg …cannot… passive voice, eg knowledge can be gained... impersonal reference, eg It can be argued… formal vocabulary, eg ‘difficult’ vs ‘hard’ referring to other sources, eg According to
6. nominalisation, eg The application of…
7. no abbreviations, eg …television…
8. topic sentences
An effective topic sentence has three parts:
A staging or cohesive device: this aids the essay’s organisation
A link to the essay question: this helps relate the topic sentence to the writer’s position
Eg: Firstly, chocolate is beneficial for health
A controlling idea which matches the scope point: this narrows the topic down to a specific issue which limits the paragraph content
Eg: Firstly, chocolate is beneficial for health as it can be used as comfort food.
Firstly, chocolate is beneficial for health as it can be used as comfort food.
TASK B Topic Sentences
Does media negatively affect body image?
The first argument (staging device) showing the negative influences of the media on body image (link to the essay question) is the increasing number of eating disorders among young women (controlling idea and matches scope point). No:
Another argument (staging device) showing that the media does not negatively influence body image (link to the essay question) is that actors who vary in size and looks are chosen to appear in various media (controlling idea and matches scope point).
1.Firstly, the media often uses models who are extremely skinny.
The controlling idea is fine, but it needs a clearer link to the essay question. Also, “extremely” and
“skinny” are informal and subjective. (significantly / underweight)
2.I think a final argument is that the media makes everyone who doesn’t look good look ordinary or even ugly. It is expressed as a personal opinion using personal, informal and subjective language. It needs to be more clearly connected to the essay question. (“ugly” = unattractive)
3.Another argument is beauty.
This is expressed as an overgeneralisation (beauty is not an argument) and thus needs to be more specific and to link to the essay question.
2.Finally, the media often has programmes on good health.
This needs to be more clearly linked to the essay question, and the idea is not relevant.
TASK D 1,2,3
One reason for encouraging public transport in cities is the benefit to the environment.
Now there are ‘green’ buses (do not emit black smoke)
Research eg: success of current trials in other cities and statistics
2) Objections to the above evidence:
Still too many cars on the