- free blacks
- those with certain religious views
- the poor
- unorthodox views/political beliefs these beliefs generated some of the first laws to control immigration – 1st federal policy, issued in 1875, against chinese women
I. chinese immigration – 19th century chinese diaspora * prior to world war II, chinese immigration was limited predominantly to 5 small regions in southeast provinces of fukien and kwangtung along with the island of macau his area had large access to outside world (merchants/port cities) * 1760 chinese government restricted foreign commerce solely to canton whereas fukien operated solely by chinese merchants; those from fukien composed the earliest chinese settlements abroad in philippines, indonesia, malaysia, s. thailand, and southeast asia * massive outflow prompted chinese government to codify in law 1656-1729
- prohibited immigration & death upon returning only managed to slow down immigration * in addition to merchants, the early immigrants were miners in thailand, malaysia, and borneo gold, large companies needed cheap labor to get gold to stabilize currency – still on gold standard at the time * 1st opium war symbolic of western encroachment on china (1839-1842) * at the war’s end in 1842, chinese already in every continent, estimated 2.5 million chinese overseas * the mass movements into the americas enabled by western ships in the ports of kwangtung * movement of chinese laborers into u.s. west, coincided with their movement into peru & cuba along with the gold rush in australia, british columbia & alaska * movement also coincided with the immigration of european immigrants into the u.s.
II. territorial expansion of the U.S. * war of 1812 with great britain and the acquisition of the pacific northwest; wars and treaty negotiations with indians * US – mexican war (1846-1848) [TX, NM, AZ, WT, NV, CA, part of CO]
- CA was colonial providence of