This paper was written by Ian Bannon(Central America Country ManagementUnit) as an input into the Workshop onTransparency and Governance,organized as part of the ConsultativeGroup Meeting for the Reconstruction and Transformation of Central America,held during May 25-28, 1999, inStockholm, Sweden. The paperpresents the World Bank’s perspectiveon the fight against corruption,drawing on a number of World Bank and other sources. It briefly sketcheselements of a conceptual frameworkon corruption, explains the WorldBank’s strategy to address corruption,and focuses on Bank efforts to supportanti-corruption programs in countries that request such assistance. It endswith some concluding thoughtsdesigned to stimulate discussionduring the workshop. While the paperdiscusses the broad elements of anti-corruption strategies, and some of the lessons learned by the World Bank andothers, it also points to some elementsand examples that may be relevant tothe efforts of Central Americancountries to both ensure thetransparent use of reconstruction aid, as well as longer-term efforts toensure that transparency and improvedgovernance become integral elementsin these countries’ strategies forsustainable development. Table of Contents Toward a Conceptual Framework DefinitionCausesMeasuring CorruptionEffects of Corruption Helping Countries Fight Corruption: The World Bank’s Strategy Economic ReformsStrengthening InstitutionsReforming the Public SectorFinancial managementCivil service reformTax and revenue departments Public procurementDecentralizationLegal and Judicial ReformJudicial reformSpecial anti-corruption bodiesCivil Society Concluding Thoughts References and Further Reading Text Boxes: Box 1: Guatemala’s Integrated Financial Management SystemBox 2: The Office of the OmbudspersonBox 3: Nicaragua: Building a National Integrity System Toward A Conceptual Framework Corruption is a complex phenomenon.Its roots lie deep in bureaucratic andpolitical institutions, and its effect ondevelopment varies with countryconditions. But while costs may varyand systemic corruption may coexist with strong economic performance,experience suggests that corruption isone of the most severe impedimentsto development and growth inemerging and transition economies. Corruption is widespread in manydeveloping and transition economies,not because their people are differentfrom people elsewhere, but becauseconditions are ripe for it. Themotivation to earn income through corrupt practices is extremely strong,exacerbated by poverty and by lowand declining civil service salaries.Coupled with a strong motivation is thefact that there are ample opportunitiesavailable to engage in corruption. Corruption flourishes where distortionsin the policy and regulatory regimeprovide scope for it and whereinstitutions of restraint are weak. Theproblem of corruption lies at theintersection of the public and the private sectors. It is a two-way street.Private interests, domestic andexternal, wield their influence throughillegal means to take advantage ofopportunities for corruption and rentseeking, and public institutions succumb to these and other sources ofcorruption in the absence of crediblerestraints. Even if detection is possible,punishments are apt to be mild whencorruption is systemic—it is hard topunish one person severely when so many others are likely to be equallyguilty. Corruption violates the public trust andcorrodes social capital. A small sidepayment to obtain or speed up agovernment service may seem a minoroffense, but it is not the only cost.Unchecked, the creeping accumulation of seemingly minor infractions canslowly erode political legitimacy to thepoint where even noncorrupt officialsand members of the public see littlepoint in playing by the rules.Credibility, once lost by the state, is very difficult to regain. Definition Many definitions of corruption havebeen advanced, none fully satisfactoryand comprehensive. Although it maybe difficult to define
CORRUPTION IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR AND SERVICE DELIVERY
A Paper presentation
ROUNDTABLE ON REVIEW OF GOVERNANCE INDEX AND SECURITY IN NIGERIA
THE NATIONAL DEFENCE COLLEGE, NIGERIA
22ND MAY, 2013
The Public Sector in Nigeria is charged with the responsibility of providing goods and services, otherwise referred to as “public goods” in economics, to the public vis-à-vis the mandate of the ruling government and its administrative…
A. Preventing corruption in public
B. Curbing corruption in the political sphere
C. Regulating the business sector and fostering
orruption and bribery thrive on systemic weaknesses. Efforts to
prevent corruption aim at eliminating these weaknesses and
enhancing integrity and transparency. This goal is common to
corruption prevention in the key sectors – public administrations…
Corruption and Transparency
Applied Business Law
Corruption and Transparency
The two items I found most interesting on Transparency.org deals with the corruption perceptions index (CPI) this index rank countries and territories based on how corrupt their public sector is perceived to be. The CPI reflects the views of observers from around the world, including experts living and working in the countries and territories evaluated (transparency.org, 2012).…
combat crime and corruption. Corruption unfortunately is a phenomenon found globally in all countries without discrimination of the path of destruction that it takes, leaving behind it, a trail of tears of those affected by its damage.
Those most affected are those of low income families as it suppresses the growth of the economy and grossly deflects educational funds so badly needed in order for those who are not able to afford a better education, to send their children to public schools. Among…
ANALYSIS OF INDIA 2
The Culture of India 2
The Political Environment of India 4
The Legal System of India 5
The Economy of India 6
ANALYSIS OF BANGLADESH 7
The Culture of Bangladesh 7
The Political Environment of Bangladesh 8
The Legal System of Bangladesh 9
Economy of Bangladesh 10
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AND FDI RECOMMENDATION 11
Comparative Analysis 11
PORTERS DIAMOND ANALYSIS 15
Information Technology Industry in India 15
Domestic and Global Demand…
citizens. However, the true distinguishing factor of rentier states is how they are doomed to failure in the long-term. The highlights to this theory are the vulnerabilities of a mono-producer, the disparities in rentier economies, and the social and political repercussions that result from this.
The most important characteristic of a rentier state is how highly dependant the country is on one source of income. With massive revenues generated by external rent, it liberates the state from ever needing…
While corruption is said to generate inefficiency and retard growth in a country (Ackerman, 1997), China manages to deliver astronomical economic growth amidst rampant corruption (Li, Peng, 2001). To explain China’s puzzle, the essay first focuses on the causes of corruption and why it has yet to be eradicated, and then analyzes its economic impact in the short and long run.
The rise of corruption in China can be attributed to the structure of its economic institutions. Starting off with a unified…
Paraguay today enjoys stability since the end of the dictatorship.
Paraguay is a constitutional democracy not consolidated but is on the way to achieve this goal.
There is a disenchantment of the population which translates into an increasingly discredited of the institutions and persons discharging managerial responsibilities of power but this is a tendency both in Paraguay and other Latin American countries where the democratic tradition is relatively new.
population density of up to 51000 people per square kilometer. Of significance to the context of this paper are the challenges and problems affecting Kiribati state. Several problems are affecting Kiribati, and of concern are the social, economic political and environmental conditions affecting Kiribati. An acute managerial crisis may be implicated in the observed multi-perspective problems of Kiribati. Kiribati, therefore, serves as an ideal case study on emphasizing the role of management in realizing…
The PEST analysis is used in this report to evaluate the political, economic, social and technological aspects of the macroeconomic environment in the targeted market, Russia. This study helps to frame the basis for the decision-making about a possible market entry. Thus, it is of vital importance to scrutinize the macroeconomic environment as part of the market research.
Political and Legal Aspects
According to the Russian 1993 Constitution, Russia is a democratic federative state…