I. Constitutional Basis for Foreign Policy
Article 2 in the Constitution (PRESIDENTIAL ARTICLE)
Framers of the Constitution met in 1787 in Philadelphia. Decided the president should be the person to take the lead in the foreign policy.
1. Allows the president to appoint authorities and to receive representatives officially.
They put in Article 2 (authority of the president to appoint ambassadors [big operation in foreign countries], other public ministers and appoint consoles [ones who are in charge of economic relations between countries]). All of these appointments have to be confirmed by the Senate. There are 100 people in the Senate (2 people per state).
2. President is authorized to make treaties or propose treaties (major agreement between countries). The president has to have that confirmed by the Senate by a 2/3 vote.
3. Commander and Chief of the Armed Forces. President may make war, even without a declaration of war. (Only declared war 5 times).
A. Article 1 in the Constitution (CONGRESSIONAL ARTICLE)
Congress in Foreign Policy:
1. Declare war
2. Regulate commerce with foreign countries.
To the grant power to congress, there is a clause that has to do with prohibition. Prohibiting states to engage in Foreign Policy. For example, state cannot enter a treaty or alliance or enter in a confederation with a foreign country. An alliance is like for mutual defense purposes. Confederation includes becoming part of another country.
Agreement or a compact is allowed Congressional Approval.
Constitution is normally silent about foreign policy but does give both the President and Congress some authority.
II. Major Presidential Functions
Derived from the original grants of power, interpreted broadly.
President is responsible for the day to day relations with Foreign Countries. (Responsible and gets the help from the state dept. and his advisors).
Harry Truman became president when Franklin died. Truman had a plaque on his desk that said, “ The Buck Stops Here.” (means that you are responsible for everything and cant blame it on anyone else).
President uses informal channels to get things done and might be something that goes around the entire state dept. ex.special agents. Someone president appoints to do a special job, behind the scenes workings.
1961: Spy planes instead of satellites. CIA sent one over the soviet union, Francis Gary Powers was flying the plane and it was hit with a Russian missile but took a parachute to earth. Surrounded by soviet farmers and captured him and turned him over to the Russian secret police. But U.S had captured one of their spies, Rudolph Abel. President Eisenhower negotiated behind the scenes using special agents in order to exchange spies. President was ultimately responsible.
No private individual can conduct any foreign policy without presidential authorization. Even former presidents.
I. Constitutional Basis of Foreign Policy
II. Major Presidential Functions
A. Day to Day Relations
The Soviet Union came around in 1934. We didn’t like the communist reign that had taken over the country but finally we recognized them. Red/Communist China was the same thing (red=color of revolution).
Red China won a civil war in China. Under Nixon we finally recognized them, and now we trade with them a lot.
Three different methods:
1. Nixon recognized red china by sending representatives over there or even receiving representatives. When doing that we recognize that country.
2. Also if we agree/conclude to a treaty.
3. President may on the advice of advisor issue a proclamation of official relations with that country.
C. Protection of Citizens
1. U.S citizens abroad should receive as much protection than at home (someone gotten in trouble kidnapped, taken hostage). The president is limited in what he can do. Ex. 1978 Iran took over American embassy. Took employees hostage. President Carter was limited in what he could