TEST # 2 STUDY GUIDE
Chapter 11- THE CONGRESS
Why was Congress created?
Congress was created so that states would have representation. Congress is in charge of controlling the federal government, foreign trade and policy, and the military.
What are the functions of Congress?
Congress has four functions lawmaking, representation, constituent services, and oversight.
The Lawmaking Function
The principal and most obvious function
Requires decisions about the size of the federal budget, health care reform, gun control, war and peace, etc...
They involve in logrolling- offering to support a fellow member's bill in exchange for that member's promise to support your bill in the future, as well as debate and discussion
Representation: the function of members of Congress a elected officials in representing the view of their constituency. (Should they promote local interest vs. national interest)
The Trustee View of Representation: Legislators should cat as trustees of the broad interests of the entire society and they should vote against the narrow interests of their constituents.
The Instructed- Delegated View of Representation: Members of Congress should mirror the view of the majority of their constituents who elected them to power
*David Mayhew- "The Electoral Connect"
Service to Constituents
The constituency of each legislature expects him/her to act as a broker between them and the government
Casework: providing service to constituency, such as tracking down a missing social security check, promoting a local business interest
The Public Education Function
Holding public hearings
Engaging in committee or floor debate on major issues and topics such as aging, illegal drugs, etc...
The Oversight Function:
The process by which Congress follows up on the laws it has enacted to ensure that they are being enforced and administered in the way Congress intended. (Power of Purse-in charge of money)
Holding committee hearings
What are the enumerated and inherent powers of Congress?
Enumerated Powers- a power specifically granted to the national government by the Constitution. The first 17 clauses of Article 1, Section 8, specify most of the enumerated powers of Congress. IE: collect taxes, to spend, and to regulate commerce. The most important foreign policy is the power to declare war.
Inherent Powers- those which are assumed by government as axiomatic, necessary components of the way in which our government functions. For example, the President has many inherent powers which he assumes as commander and chief of the armed forces - they must necessarily be inherent powers based upon the structure of U.S. government.
House of Representatives-Senate Differences
Elected from local districts
Elected from State
6 year term
May impeach (indict) federal officials
May convict federal officials of impeachable offenses
Originally elected by voters
Originally (until 1913) elected by state legislators
More formal rules
Fewer rules and restrictions
Less prestige and less individual notice
More prestige and media attention
Originates bills for raising revenues
Has power to advise the president on, and to consent to , presidential appointments and treaties.
Local or narrow leadership
Less party loyalty
Impeach- to accuse: House of Representatives
Indictment- (Clinton, Nixon, Jackson)
Trial- Conviction, Acquittal
Indictment- A formal charge or accusation of a serious crime: "an indictment for conspiracy".
The Power of Incumbency - The motivation behind the activities of Members of Congress is reelected - Voting records, casework, pork projects, money to the district
How does a bill becomes law? p360
Chapter 12- THE PRESIDENT
12th Amendment- An amendment to the Constitution, adopted in 1804, that requires the separate election of the President and Vice President by the Electoral College.