Age of Exploration- Period from 1400 to 1600 in which Europeans traveled the rest of the world in search of goods, raw materials, land, and trade partners. The Age of Discovery was a period starting in the early 15th century and continuing to the 17th century. During this period Europeans explored Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Oceania.
Age of Reason- Enlightenment: a movement in Europe from about 1650 until 1800 that advocated the use of reason and individualism instead of tradition and established doctrine; "the Enlightenment brought about many humanitarian reforms.” (England, France, & US) capitalism- An economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state. cash crop- A crop, such as tobacco, grown for direct sale rather than for livestock feed.
Casta System- The system of castas, or genizaros, was based on the accepted knowledge that the character and quality of people varied according largely to their birth, color, race and origin of ethnic types. The system of castas was more than socio-racial classification. It impacted every aspect of life, including economics and taxation. circumnavigate- sail all the way around (something, esp. the world) colonize (colony)- a country or area under the full or partial political control of another country, typically a distant one, and occupied by settlers from that country.
Columbian Exchange- The Columbian Exchange was a widespread exchange of animals, plants, culture, human populations, communicable disease, technology, and ideas between the American and Afro-Eurasian hemispheres following the voyage to the Americas by Christopher Columbus in 1492
Commercial Revolution- The Commercial Revolution was a period of European economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism which lasted from approximately the 16th century until the early 18th century.
Conquistador- a conqueror, esp. one of the Spanish conquerors of Mexico and Peru in the 16th century.
Devshirme System- was chiefly the practice by which the Ottoman Empire (Turks) took slave boys from their Christian families, who were then converted to Islam with the primary objective of selecting and training the ablest children for the military or civil service of the Empire, though in Bosnia, exceptionally, the devşirme was also extended to local Muslim families. The ideal age of a recruit was between 7 and 10 years of age, although they recruited much younger boys. The devşirme system was locally resented and was resisted, even to the point of disfiguring their sons. On the other hand, as the devşirme were recruited to rise up to the grand vizier status (the second most powerful man in the empire), Christian parents in Bosnia were known to bribe scouts to take their children.
Divine right- The doctrine that monarchs derive their right to rule directly from God and are accountable only to God.
Encomienda System- A legal system that was employed mainly by the Spanish crown during the Spanish colonization of the Americas to regulate Native American labor. In the encomienda, the Spanish crown granted a person a specified number of natives for whom they were to take responsibility. In theory, the receiver of the grant was to protect the natives from warring tribes and to instruct them in the Spanish language and in the Catholic faith: in return they could extract tribute from the natives in the form of labor, gold, or other products
Ethnocentrism- belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group
Genocide- the deliberate killing of a large group of people, esp. those of a particular ethnic group or nation.
God, gold, glory- describes the motivations of various European explorers. This is an oversimplification of the