Political parties first came about at the Constitutional Convention. There , the delegates
were all in agreement that the Articles of Confederation had to be fixed. Of course,
there were some differences, but the first political parties didn't evolve until Washington's
presidency. At the beginning of his presidency, two of his cabinet members, Alexander
Hamilton the secretary of the Treasury and Thomas Jefferson the secretary of State ,
did not agree on anything at all.
These opposing viewpoints led to the rising of the first political parties, the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans.
The key difference to Hamilton and Jeffersons views was how much power , size and
scope each side thought that the federal government should have over the individual
states.Hamilton believed that the country should be ruled by the wealthy class. He
believed in a strong federal government , leaving little control in the he
hands of the state . He also placed his emphasis on manufacturing unlike Jefferson who
placed emphasis on agriculture and believed in power to the state.
Hamilton's goals were first to establish a financial program. The chief issue of
Washington’s first term was the fiscal program devised by Alexander Hamilton and
submitted to the House of Representatives in a series of reports on national and state
debt, an excise tax, and a national bank. In 1790 , Hamilton designed a financial
system to deal with Americas huge national debt.
Controversy over these proposals ultimately led to a divide between Federalists and the
Democratic Republicans .
Jefferson did not agree with Hamilton's plans as it would mean establishing a national
bank in which financiers and legislators could gain all the power.Part of establishing the
national bank was putting an excise tax on whiskey , which then led to the whiskey
rebellion. Jefferson did not agree with the excise tax as the excise tax was a part of the
national bank in which he strongly apposed as it left no power in the hands of the state
" the excise tax is an infernal one.. The publics detest of the excise tax is universal and
has now associated to detestation of the government . ( quote 3)
Jefferson envisioned a society based in agriculture where the state is more powerful
than the central authority . Jefferson disliked Hamilton as they had two very contrasting
views what the American government should be. The two political sects have arisen
within the United States , the one called federalists , sometimes aristocrats or mono rats
and sometimes Tories ... The other are republicans , Whigs ... " - ( quote 5 )
Jefferson thought that Hamilton was a monarchist , and also believed his motives
where to build a monarchy like that which was present in England .
Hamilton was not only a monarchist , but in support if a monarchy " - ( quote 1)
1790. Jefferson also feared tyranny and thought only in terms of freedom .
Hamilton thought the federal government should be more powerful than the state
whereas Jefferson thought the complete opposite. Hamilton distrusted Jefferson ,
Madison and their faction as they were supporting France and were against Great
Britain.They were hostile to him. Hamilton said that the views of Madison and Jefferson
are unsound and dangerous as there was no strong central authority.
" Mr Madison , co operating with Mr Jefferson is at the head of the faction , decidedly
hostile to me , and my administration , and actuated views ... Subversive of the principle
of good government and danger to The Union... Mr. Jefferson displays his dislike of
finding the debt ... In respect to our foreign politics , the views of the gentlemen ! Mr
Jefferson and his supporters are unsound and dangerous