Reading the 1648 ordinance from Parliament suppressing stage theatre seems to confirm what we are taught and thus what is, for the large part, common knowledge: Puritan hostility towards the theatre reflected itself in law, shutting down theatre in England for eighteen years. Without delving further into context, deducing any other motive becomes difficult. Acts of stage plays were “condemned by ancient heathens, and much less to be tolerated amongst Professors of the Christian Religion”. The Long Parliament’s Act declared triumphantly and decidedly that stage plays and actors were no more. Illegal, the instruments to conduct theatre should be dismantled and the actors arrested should they attempt their craft. The Act was straightforward in its wording, with very little room for even the best lawyers to work through. Puritan fervor saw the end of theatre in England for eighteen years. There are several logical leaps and contextual oversights that lead to this conclusion. In reality – as always – the truth is more complex. First, the time period of the theatre closure is more commonly defined as from 1642 until 1660. This act of 1648 comes six years after the ordinance ordering the initial closure. In that six-year span lies political and theatrical history critical to understanding the attitude of the latter ordinance. Second, a Puritan fervor was not so dominant in London as some might assume. A significant portion of the population – gentry and commoner – lived non-radical lifestyles. The 1648 ordinance is one of the first official documents containing strongly religious rhetoric. Third, theatre did not disappear for nearly two decades. That we learn as much in school is the result of historians and literary critics making vitally wrong assumptions that turned an intricate tangle of culture and society into an eighteen-year gap. The consensus among historians may have changed over time towards a more complex view, but the history books of the public have not. Fourth and finally, the reasoning behind the ban of the theatre is more than and perhaps excludes the church. As stated above, the 1648 document rippled with religious fire – the 1642 counterpart did not. The question then becomes what happened in the intermittent years? Most Historians of the period argue this point by omission. Like Gurr’s classic on Shakespeare, many historians end their surveys and analyses in 1642. Even Cook and Martin, fundamental sources of opinion in my research, do not venture past the first closure. Finding sources that either continued after 1642 or began before the 1660 Restoration became a fair struggle during my studies. Not surprisingly, teachers and textbooks follow this trend, glazing over the period. As I stated above and will restate several times hereafter, this glazing over is what I want our contemporaries to reconsider. In this paper I will add my opinion to the over-stuffed debate that is the English Civil War. The closure of the theatres from 1642-1660 interests me largely due to the re-opened debate over its importance and, more importantly, the motives beneath it. I do not pretend enough knowledge to valuate an event’s importance in the grand scheme, but breaking down and analyzing the same event falls well within my abilities. My goal is to show that the theatre bans of 1642 and 1648, while somewhat religious in dialogue, deal with many other influences that might trump religion in strength. My approach, and argument, is threefold. First, the 1642 ban was political and not without precedent. There was little or no religious background to the decision to close the theatres. Second, the ordinance was not intended to be permanent. Several instances, societal standards and documents suggest the assumption that the ban would be temporary. Third, even the 1648 Act with its emphasis on Puritan ideals might not be so clear-cut as many would assume. A power shift in London alone justifies my…
Protestantism And Modernity
Evangelical Pietism (conservative)
Out of 17th century – lutherism
Creeds and formal religion
Feelings over rational thinking
Changing human life – not examining it
Sensing a purpose rather than analyzing it
Experiencing the divine
Spread out on international scale
Francke and Spener in Holland
Wesley in England
Count Zinzendorf & Moravians in Bohemia
Jonathon Edwards and American revivalists
Absolute dependence on God
The Oxford Movement (conservative)
John Henry Newman…
led to a similar values and ethics appreciated by society. The civil society for democracy in both nations have formed for collective action to protect non-state public actors, affect the regime type (which in this case is keeping military out of politics and democratic elections), and influence the policies of the state (raising the minimum wage), society and the market (in the case of Mynmar less centralized control of the market and a transition to a free market system).
Figure 1 Country Overview…
Land, Settlement, and Politics
Prince Edward Island
November 13, 2012
Bumsted, J.M., Land, Settlement, and Politics on Eighteenth-Century Prince Edward Island.
McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1987.
In his 1987, Land, Settlement, and Politics on Eighteenth-Century Price Edward Island, J.M. Bumsted discusses early eighteenth-century settlement in the New World…
* 1990 = 12 agencies.
* 2005 = 130 agencies employing 75% of the civil service.
* 1958 Life Peerages Act – Duration of their lives – diversity.
* Parliament Act 1911 – Removed the veto of the lords.
* Parliament Act 1949 – Limited time delay of the lords to 8 - 9 months. Last used for fox hunting bill.
* House of Lords Act 1999 – HOC removed all but 92 hereditary peers. Gradual approach to change. The beginnings of change.
* A ¼ of bills begin in the…
Mon. and Wed. 10:35-12:00 pm
Chicano Politics Ch.1
Latino is such a common word used by many, but what really defines someone to be called a Latino? To be defined as a Latino simply means to have some sort of Spanish origin. Most Latinos think of themselves in terms of their own national-origin group (Honduran, Cuban, Argentine etc.), and this subgroup identification is an important component of the core definition of community (Garcia, John A., Latino Politics in America pg…
A distinctive feature of US politics, in comparison with most other industrialized nations in the world, is its virtual lack of class-based politics. President George W. Bush, for instance, has said that class is for ‘European democracies or something else—it isn’t for the United States of America. We are not going to be divided by class’ (cited in Harrigan, 2000: 6). And this seems to be the general attitude that pervades all of American society, to the extent where militating on the basis of class…
U.S Government and Politics
Interest Groups, is an organized group of individuals that seek to influence public policy. Which are also known as lobbies.
Facts: Paul Schafer escaped Germany for sexually abusing charges against two boys. He Fled to Chile to later be charged with twenty-six charges of sex molestation. Schafer was caught in Argentina. Schafer used his powerful connections to influence the people in the colony. All of which allow him to become the monster he was.
Race and Politics
Most people might not recognize it yet but one of our major problems is racism. The United States of America is a strong nation, which so many people from other nations immigrate into, yet some races feel superior to others and this also is reflected in America’s political system today. Yet, the once unthinkable has already manifested itself in the country. A black man being the president of the U.S could not…
Nursing 3303 Issues and Nursing Perspectives
Nursing over the years has evolved in the form of the roles that are fulfilled and expected involvement in the healthcare field. The changes that followed create a multitude of opportunities. In this paper we will discuss the changing role of nurses and its impact on healthcare today. We will also discuss why nurses should be involved in policies and politics and the importance of doing so.
Before the 1980’s nurses were primarily…
Religion and Politics
Historically, religion and politics have always played a very significant part in our everyday lives, dating back to the ancient pharaohs of Africa to our modern day society, religion have had a profound effect on our existence as a society. For a good example of how religion affects politics in our modern world we need not look very far but in our own backyard. The influence of Catholicism on Latin American politics, and the role religion plays on Middle Eastern…