Week 7 – Health and Wellness
Food Born Illness Questions
What is the infectious agent (pathogen) that causes this infectious disease? For example, the name of the bacteria, virus, or parasite.
The infectious agent that causes salmonella is called salmonella enteriditis. This bacteria is larger than a virus but it is visable through a microscope. It is rod-shaped bacteria that does not form spores. It communicates to its fellow bacteria via AHL. It infects the cell, multiplies within it; then, bursts the cell. Special effector protein factors are required for salmonella intestinal invasion and the induction of fluid secretion and for inflammatory responses. There are about six names species names of it, salmonella enteritidis, and salmonella enteric which cause the human disease. The three main serovars of Salmonella enterica are Typhimurium, Enteritidis, and Typhi. Each of these is discussed further below. These distinctions are are designed to help scientists distinguish similar bacteria from each other in papers and when discussing the genetics.
How is this infectious agent transmitted through food or water? Salmonella can be passed to humans many different ways. Salmonella lives in the in the digestive system of many animals. It can be passed to humans through their feces if it is not handled properly. It is usually passed to humans by infected food (poultry, beef, or eggs normally) that has been improperly cooked or stored. If you don't cook the food long enough, or store it in a cold enough temperature, your risk of getting salmonella is very high. This is due to poor kitchen or personal hygiene. You can also get salmonella from polluted water, feces from infected people and contact with reptiles. Most of the salmonella bacteria is destroyed by stomach acid, but high concentrations of the bacteria in infected food leads to the bacteria multiplying quickly.
What is an example of a real life outbreak of this foodborne illness in the United States?
A recent outbreak of Salmonella in the United States was in spring of 2008. It was the largest outbreak since 1985. Hundreds and hundreds of people got sick after eating contaminated food. The U.S. and Drug Administration believe that this outbreak was caused from jalapeno and serrano peppers that came from Mexico. Raw tomatoes and fresh cilantro were also being investigated and may have also been contaminated as well. There were at least 1,329 cases of salmonella repoted in 43 different states. It was the largest outbreak since 1985. There were at least 257 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak, leading to at least one death, and the outbreak may have been a contributing factor in at least one additional death, but has not been official yet.
What are the clinical symptoms, duration of the disease, and treatment if any?
Symptoms of Salmonella: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, fever, chills, headache,…