Pope and Strong Central Gov’t Essays

Submitted By kristenluvsya8
Words: 4400
Pages: 18

Middle Ages

Feudalism was a system in which land is granted in return for loyalty, food, taxes, and military service
King provides money and knights and grants land to lords
Lords provide protection and military service and grant land to knights
Knights provide food and service when demanded and grant land to peasants
It arose in the absence of a strong central gov’t
The lord was the person who granted the land
The vassal was to whom the land was granted-a vassal could divide up the land and grant it to knights and peasants

The purpose of the crusades was to regain the holy land because it was a chance to get rich

The moors form N Africa, Hungarians from the east, and Vikings from the North

The new weapons were long bows and cannons

The black death originated in Asia and was carried on ships and trade routes to European port cities, some consequences were:
Rats carrying infected fleas, 25 mil people die
Bubonic/pneumonic plague-tumors on neck,armpit and groin,black purple spots, and high fever
People abandon cities/stay in
Breakdown of social order
Family members don’t care for eachother, no space in graveyards or family plots

Fief-the granted land

Law of Primogeniture- fief was passed down to the oldest son

Oath- It was taken before God, on the sacred scripture or on the relics of a saint. Violating it meant dishonor, possible excommunication, and the potential for big trouble in the afterlife. In the middle ages, people were taught, and most believed, that a person's word was more important than that person's life.

Manor-a large estate that included the manor house, pastures, fields, and a village

Castle- nobility lived in fortified homes, did not have easy or luxorious lives, inside of castle was dark, damp, and chilly

Charlemagne- inhererits throne in (1786), by the end of his reign he controlled most of western Europe, united Europe for the 1st time in 400 years, and it was mainly because of him that kept the empire together and without him it fell apart

Clovis- the clovis conquered all Frankish tribes and all of Gaul, brutal and cruel, but excellent leader, converted to and supported Christianity, France takes its name from the franks

Vikings- came from Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden, denmark, and finland), during the summer they went rading through most of Europe who feared Viking attacks

Magna Carta- agreed not to collect any new tax w/o consent of great council, could n ot take property w/o paying for it, and could grant any person trial by jury

Pope Innocent III- believed himself supreme over the clergy and kinds
Did not hesitate to excommunicate people
Excommunitcated all of England and to have it lifted King John to to become the pope’s vassal and pa money to Rome every year

The Hundred year’s war- fought on French soil

War of the Roses- struggle for English throne
House of york-white rose
House of Lancaster- red rose
Bands of nobles and their private armies did most of the fighting
Henry tudor ended the war by defeating Richard III of york

Battle of Agincourt- took place in france,
Henry V took advantage of longbow and archers
French defeated and Henry married daughter of French king

1st Crusade- led by French noble’s in 1096-1099, for about a century the crusaders occupied those lands

2nd Crusade- turks again threated Jerusalem
King Louis of France and HRE Conrade III led armies into holy land
Failed to capture the city and had to retreat to Europe after 2 years

3rd Crusade- led by King Richard of England, King Phillip II of France, and Frederick Barbarossa
Richard stayed and fought, but did not win the city only the right for Christians to enter Jerusalem

Ferdinand and Isabella- by 1462 the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon were united by a marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella, together will take Navarre and Granada

Hapsburg Family- gained most of the power of the HRE, but failed to unite the empire