The quick growth of the world's population over the past one hundred years results from a difference between the rate of birth and the rate of death. The human population is projected to increase by 1 billion people in the next decade. The growth in human population around the world affects all people through its impact on the economy and environment. The current rate of population growth is now a significant burden to the well-being of all living organisms. India’s population is increasing and in the last 50 to 70 years they have went to the extreme of forced sterilization to the more practical contraceptive distribution and family planning. At the present India has the second largest population in the world behind China, However; India is expected to become the largest population in the year 2030. India’s current population is 1.2 billion people with 29% being 14 years old or younger. It has a 1.28% population growth rate (91st world wide). 20.24 births per 1000 people and 7.39 deaths per 1000 people. The infant mortality rate is 44.6 / 1000 (50th worldwide). 2.55 Fertility rate (81st world wide). Contraceptive use is 54.8% and unemployment is 10.2% (106th world wide). 65.48 years is the life expectancy. With these projected figures the question has arisen whether India should or shouldn’t implement stricter family planning polices in order to reduce its population growth. The basis of the need for stricter polices are the negative economic impact, an increase of pollution, and the impact on the environment and its resources.
India’s an emerging economic power, though there is a small percent of the country’s population benefiting this growth most of which are located in the southern part of the country. Over the economists have argued whether overpopulation has a positive or a negative effect. In 1826 an economist named Thomas R Malthus created a population growth model that stated “the population growth can reduce the output per capita because population increases at a geometrical rate while production rises at an arithmetic rate so that output growth rate cannot keep the same pace.” Robert M. Solow is another economist that focused on the term “population growth rate.” He stated that “an increase in the population growth rate can decline the capital per worker as well as the steady-state output per worker. As a result, higher population growth can bring the detriment to the productivity and economic growth.” A country, which has a rapid population growth, can suffer many burdens, such as capital dilution, shortage of necessity resources and the casualty could lead the whole population to poverty, famine and starvation. 50 years after gaining independence half of India’s people live on less than $1 a day. 48% of the adult population and 62% of adult women are illiterate; women are severely discriminated against, 53% of children under five are malnourished; 71% have no access to sanitation; 37% have no access to safe water; and there are around 100 million child laborers. 20% of the world's maternal deaths and 25% of its child deaths occur in India. Delhi, Mumbai and Chennai are three of the world's ten most polluted cities. Population growth also leads to higher total consumption demand for goods and services.
Impact on the Earth and its resources:
India’s increased population impacts the environment and its resources negatively. As the human population expands, the damaging effects on the environment multiply. Problems associated with overpopulation include the increased demand for resources such as fresh water and food, starvation and malnutrition, consumption of natural resources (such as fossil fuels) faster than the rate of regeneration, and a deterioration in living conditions.
Water is one of the basic elements of live, and it is needed to preserve the balance of every ecosystem. It cools down and cleanses the environment and is