- The state or condition of having little or no money, goods, or means of support; condition of being poor.
US POVERTY RATE
Poverty in the United States:
- The official poverty rate in 2011 was 15%
- 46.2 million people were poverty during that year
- Children under 18 is 21%
- 18-64 is 13.6 percent
- Ages 65 and older is 8.7%
-She constructed a poverty measure to assess the relative low-income status and differentiation between demographic groups with children
- Orshanky estimated that families and individuals spend 1/3 of their pre-tex income on food
- By using the 1955 USDA food consumption data, Orshanky would apply the USDA data by USDA economic food plan costs and multiplied by a factor of three to yield a poverty threshold. Other factors that would determine the threshold were family size, children, and gender of the head of the household. This was used as the official poverty measure of the United States in 1965. There were changes to the poverty measure calculator in 1969: (1) There was no longer the USDA economic food plan and instead was changed the annual adjustment based on the consumer price index. (2) There was a change to the threshold in regards to farm poverty as individuals and families who live in a farm corresponded to 85% of non-farm individuals and families. Also there changes to the poverty measure calculator in 1979: distinctions between male and female households is removed. Poverty Threshold:
-Thresholds are measured the Orshanky model.
- Vary according to family sized and ages of family members.
- There is an example: lets say Family A has four members: two children, a mother and a father, which meant the threshold based on the 2011 measure was 22,811.
- The definition of Inequality is: the gap between the rich and poor. In the United States the top 1% controls 84% of the economy
Why do we care about Inequality?
- When inequality grows, our economy gets worse and there is less opportunity for people.
- Attachments are essential to survival
- According to research single women live the longest - one primary reason is because they have more attachments thus these attachments and relationships help them for an emotional and material support system for themselves that enable them to deal with the stressors in their lives
- Women start to narrow their attachment network down when they meet somebody and men increase their attachment network when they meet somebody
STAGES OF ATTACHMENT
→ Three main stages of attachment 1) Pre-attachment - Begins when the baby is born till 2-3 months of age - The babies are only thinking of survival, thus babies will go anywhere at anytime - They form pre-attachments with anyone not just the birth mother - however its is not limited to only babies, everyone who forms relationship with another person forms a pre-attachment to them
2) Attachment in the making - Lasts from 2-3 months of age till 6 months - In this period babies start to attach because they get used to the sound, smell, and seeing that person day after day - After 6 months the child has begun to fully attach 3) Clear cut attachment - Lasts from 6-8 months till 18 months -- after the 18 months you are attached, meaning if you end the attachment you will have emotional and physical consequences
- The younger the child the quicker the attachment
- Revolutionized the way we see attachment
- He proposed the idea that ‘attachment is a process’ - basically saying that attachment does not happen like the animal kingdom - it takes time
- Especially in humans - they take a longer time to attach
- He laid out 3 stages of attachment. We don’t follow stages accordingly!