1. Arterioles obtained from two different vascular beds are placed in incubation medium. When epinephrine is added to the medium, some of the vessels constrict while the others dilate. Why?
2. A patient was evaluated for a possible endocrine disorder. Urinalysis revealed elevated metanephrine concentration. What is the patient’s disorder and how does it lead to elevated metanephrine concentrations in urine?
3. In the rat pituitary, corticotropes are present in the pars tuberalis, pars distalis and the pars intermedia.
Imagine that you isolate corticotropes from the pars distalis and pars intermedia. You incubate the cells and identify the products released into the incubation medium. Assuming the molecules released in vitro are the same as those released in vivo, what products would you find? Do corticotropes obtained from the pars distalis release the same hormone(s) as those obtained from the pars intermedia? Why or why not? 4. A patient complains of muscle weakness and weight gain. You notice his arms and legs are very thin but there is marked accumulation of body fat in his trunk. Fasting blood glucose concentration is elevated.
Imaging studies show significant enlargement of the left adrenal gland but a smaller-than-normal right adrenal. What is the most likely explanation for the reduction in the size of the right adrenal gland?
5. (6 pts) Imagine five patients, each with a unique hormone deficiency. Which one is most likely to experience hypoglycemia, after fasting for example? (Circle one answer.)
a. The patient who cannot produce glucagon
b. The patient who cannot produce growth hormone
c. The patient who cannot produce cortisol
d. The patient who cannot produce epinephrine
e. The patient who cannot produce insulin
What is it about this patient’s deficit in hormone production that makes him especially susceptible to developing hypoglycemia? Be sure to explain cause-effect relationships clearly.
6. (6 pts) You have two patients: Patient A has a loss-of-function mutation in 11β-hydroxylase and Patient
B has a loss-of-function mutation in 21β-hydroxylase. Match the patients with the signs and…