14. Bence Jones Protein: a primary example of proteinuria due to increase serum protein levels is the excretion of Bence Jones proteins by persons with multiple myeloma. When Bence Jones protein is suspected, a screening test that uses the unique solubility characteristics of the protein can be performed, Multiple Myeloma is an associated disease from Bence Jones.
15. Bilirubin: A bright yellow pigment produced in the degradation of heme. The appearance of bilirubin in the urine can provide and early indication of liver disease, It is often detected long before the development of jaundice. Conjugated bilirubin appears in the urine when the normal degradation cycle has disrupted by obstruction of the bile duct or when the integrity of the liver is damaged, allowing leakage of conjugated bilirubin into the circulation. Hepatitis and cirrhosis are common examples of conditions that produce liver damage, resulting in bilirubinuria.
16. The reagent strip reaction uses the action of LE to catalyze the hydrolysis of an acid ester embedded on the reagent pad to produce an aromatic compound and acid. The aromatic compound then combines with a diazonium salt present on the pad to produce a purple azodye.
17. CSF provides a physiologic system to supply nutrients to the nervous tissue, remove metabolic waste, and produce a mechanical barrier to cushion the brain and spinal cord against trauma.
18. Meningitis: inflammation of meninges, frequently caused by microbial infection. Disease in which damage to the blood brain barrier allows increase filtration of proteins and coagulation factors also cause clot formation but do not usually produce a bloody fluid.
19. Xanthochromia: Yellowish discoloration of the cerebrospinal fluid. A variety of factors can cause the appearance of xanthochromia, with the most common being the presence of RBC degradation products. Depending on the amount of blood and the length of time it has been present, the color will vary from pink to orange to yellow. Other causes of xanthochromia include elevated serum bilirubin, presence of pigment carotene, markedly increased…