Prehistory and Mesopotamia:
Paleolithic: Early Stone Age ended 15,000 years ago.
Neolithic: Time when ground and polished stone were used, flints.
Fertile Crescent: area in the Middle East that extends to the Tigris and Euphrates center of Neolithic places starting in 7000.
Catal Huyuk: Ancient settlement in south Anatolia from 7500-5700 bc.
Jericho: Fortified city on the west bank near Palestine.
Sumer and Akkad: S- Area in modern Iraq, part of Mesopotamia. Akkad- ditto.
Cuneiform: Early system of writing using pictographs
Uruk, Ur: Uruk- Ancient city of Sumer on the bed of the Euphrates
Lugal: “Big man”
Ziggurat: Ancient temple with shrine on top.
Sargon of Akkad: First conqueror of the Sumerian city states.
Babylon: City on banks of Euphrates, capital of Babylonia.
Hammurabi: Wrote a set of doctrines, king of babylonia
Epic of Gilgamesh: Ancient poem from five different Sumerian cities, Gilgamesh and Enkidu are gods, enkidu oppresses people.
Enuma Elish: Babylonian creation myth
Enkidu, utnapishtim: Enkidu, figure in the myth created to rid Gilgamesh of arrogance raised in the while. Utnapishtin- only survivor of great flood, saved several animals.
Isis, Osiris: Goddess of fertility, God of the underworld and judge of the dead.
Seth, Horus: God of dessert who killed Osirus, Protecter of Hierarchy and typically a falcon god of sun.
Amon-Ra: “Ra”, sun god and supreme god of the universe.
Ma’at: god of truth and justice.
Duat: Realm of Osiris.
Pharaoh: Ruler of ancient Egypt, sometimes a god.
Memphis: capital of old kingdom
Narmer: Ancient Pharaoh, first dynasty. Unifier of upper and lower Egypt.
Thebes: Greek name for a city in upper Egypt, two major temples. And capital of Egypt
18th dynasty: Period in middle kingdom with famous pharaohs, after hyksos
Hyksos: people who invaded Egypt in the middle kingdom.
Hatshepsut: Queen of Egypt, kept her son sheltered for exchange of power.
Damnatio Memoriac: “must not be remembered”, like the stepson did to Hatshepsut.
Thutmosis III: Son of Hatshepsut.
Akhenaten: Pharaoh who abandoned traditional religion and moved the capital to Akhetaton.
Aten: Solar disc which was the deity worshiped by Akhenaten.
Amarna: Modern name of Akhetaton. Has many ruins and certain tablets.
Ramesses II: Built massive temples and went to war a lot.
Sea Peoples: People who raided Egypt throughout its history
Peleset: People who occupied northern Egypt, considered part of the sea peoples.
Canaan: Area of ancient Palestine west of the Jordan River.
Murex: mollusk who’s particular gland made Tyrian purple. Traded by Phoenicians
Carthage: City founded by