Prelim Modern History Essay

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Prelim. Modern History Exam Notes
RWANDA GENOCIDE
Causes – background, long-term, short-term events that began the genocide
Long term:

Short-term: assassination of Habyarimana Hutu extremists used this as an opportunity to blame Tutsi rebels and initiate genocide throughout Rwanda. His death was the catalyst for genocide.
Course of events – what happened, what actions did groups and individuals take?

Rwandan Key Players
Interhamwe
Means ‘those who stand together’
Civilian militia group organised by MRND party members
Instigated violence against Tutsis and political opponents.
National Revolutionary Movement for Development (MRND)
Political party created by Habyarimana
Hutu extremists within MRND played large role in organising genocide
Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR)
Hutu FAR defended Rwanda against RPF invasion
FAR soldiers took part in massacres of Tutsis
Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF)
Political and military organisation created and led by Tutsi exiles in Uganda
Headed by Paul Kagame
Established safe-zone in Rwanda ceasefire and ended genocide
Media propaganda
Played crucial role in genocide
Local print and radio fuelled killings international media ignored events on the ground
‘Hutu Ten Commandments” – how Hutus should treat Tutsi
Radio Television Libre des Mille Collines  radio Rwanda used to promote killing of Tutsi in Rwanda
Role, actions and limitations of other international groups and organisations
United Nations (UN)
1993, created special force United Nations Assistance Mission to Rwanda (UNAMIR) to oversee installation of transitional govt.
UN’s mandate forbids intervention in internal political of any country unless genocide is being committed
Hesitant to intervene after events in Syria soldier dragged through the streets
Romeo Dallaire
UN Force Commander in Rwanda
Notified Secretary General of weapons cache and planned extermination of Tutsis
Made plans for UNAMIR troops to seize arms caches however HQ responded that his plans went beyond UN mandate

Impacts and effects of genocide – casualties, legal processes, reconciliation actions
Casualties:
Murder of 75% of Tutsi population
Approximately 1 million dead
200-5000 pregnancies estimated to be as result of rape
250 000 – 500 000 Rwandan women and girls raped
Long term effects of war rape:
PTSD, depression, mental health issues
Sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS
Life tried to continue as normal hard for some people to adjust living next to murderers and rapists victims and perpetrators living as neighbours
Legal Processes:
Predicted it would take 200 years to process everyone on trial
Gacaca Courts established to lessen burden on normal courts
Dealt with genocide crimes identifying truth about genocide and speeding up trials of genocide perpetrators
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)
Established by UN
Responsible for prosecuting Rwandan leaders and locals who participated in genocide
Scheduled to close after 2014 when all trials and appeals have been processed
Reconciliation Actions
1995, UNHCR began efforts to repatriate Rwandan refugees agreement est. with Uganda, Rwanda, Zaire and Burundi to speed up repatriation process
Rwandan govt. arrests large number of Hutus who took part in genocide
ICTR begins trying people of genocide
1998 Rwandan govt. executes 22 people found guilty of taking part in mass killings

Forces that shaped and changed Rwanda in this period

WORLD AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY
The nature of European society
Rich and poor
Urbanisation and industrialisation

Effects of industrialisation:
Capitalism and economic change
Society based on profit and economic growth for the individual
Focus moved to cash crops
Middle class were capitalists
Wealth of Europeans increased 400%
Taxes replaced free trade

Expanding role of govt.
Govt. forced to intervene
Public…