Oxidation- loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction.
Reduction- gain or addition of electrons to a substance involved in a redox reaction
2. The following is a generalized formula for a redox reaction:
Xe- + Y --> X + Ye-
What is the reducing agent? Oxidizing agent?
What becomes oxidized? reduced?
Reducing agent: Xe-
Oxidizing agent: Y
Xe- becomes oxidized.
Y becomes reduced.
3. When compounds lose electrons, they ___ energy; when compounds gain electrons, they ___ energy. lose gain
1. Why is glycolysis an appropriate term for this step of cell resp?
It means, sugar splitting, which is exactly what happens. Glucose, a six- carbon sugar, is broken into two three- carbon sugars.
2. The starting product of glycolysis is teh six- carbon sugar ____, and the ending product is two ___ carbon compounds termed ___. glucose three pyruvate 3. The ten individual steps of glycolysis can be divided into two stages: ___ and ____. energy investment energy pay-off
4. In glycolysis, ATP is formed in which phase?
What is the net gain?
Because in the energy- investment phase, two ATP are used up.
5. After glycolysis, most of the energy is still present in the two molecules of ___. pyruvate (5) Oxidation (see also oxidation)
(a) Oxidation is the movement of electrons away from an atom (or, more precisely, away from an atom's nucleus)
(b) Thus, when oxygen oxidizes something, it pulls the electrons away from that something and towards itself (in the process, oxygen, serving as an oxidizing agent, is itself reduced)
(c) Note that oxidation refers to this movement of electrons even when oxygen atoms are not involved in the process
(d) [oxidation (Google Search)] [index]
(6) Reduction (see also reduction)
(a) The movement of electrons towards an atom (or, more precisely, towards an atom's nucleus)
(b) Because carbon is not terribly electronegative, the reduction of (donation of electrons to) carbon tends to result in the formation of energy-rich bonds (e.g., C-C and C-H bonds)
(c) Why "reduction"? Think of reduction as the reduction in electrical charge (increasing negativity) an atom or molecule (or ion) experiences as it gains electrons
(d) Note, however, that reduction does not always result in a decline in electrical charge since protons often are donated to a compound simultaneously with the donation of electrons
(7) Redox reactions (oxidation-reduction reactions) (see also redox)
(a) In order for electrons to move away from something, they invariably move towards something else
(b) Consequently, oxidation and reduction tend to be coupled
(c) We abbreviate this coupling using the phrase "redox reaction" meaning chemical reactions in which both oxidation and reduction occur
(8) Oxidizing agent (see also oxidizing agent)
(a) A substance capable of stealing electrons (i.e., oxidizing another substance) is called an oxidizing agent
(b) Oxygen atoms tend to be good oxidizing agents
(c) [oxidizing agent (Google Search)] [index]
(9) Reducing agent (see also reducing agent)
(a) A substance that allows its electrons to be stolen (i.e., thereby reducing another substance) is called a reducing agent (i.e., reducing agents tend to donate there electrons to other substances)
(b) Substances with carbon-to-carbon and carbon-to-hydrogen bonds tend to be good reducing agents (well, good at reducing molecular oxygen, at least)