Presentation Report Essay examples

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Anaemia Anemia is a medical condition in which the red blood cell count is less than normal. Hemoglobin plays an important role in explaining the genetic disorder anemia. It is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloproteinase in the red blood cells. Hemoglobin is the red pigment that imparts the familiar red color to red blood cells and to blood. The normal level of hemoglobin is different for males and females. The level of hemoglobin defined as cause of anemia is less than 13.5 grams/100ml in men and in women is less than 12.0grams/100ml. A more common way to explain anemia is based on the Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) which signifies the average volume of one’s red blood cells. Three of them are microcytic anemia, normocytic anemia and macrocytic anemia. Microcytic anemia is low cell volume and the MCV in this is less than 80, while normocytic anemia is normal cell volume and the MCV has a range of 80-100. The one that has large cell volume is known as macrocytic anemia and MCV is high. Anemia is the most common blood condition in the U.S. It affects about 3.5 million Americans. Women and people with chronic diseases are at increased risk of anemia. Certain forms of anemia are hereditary and infants may be affected from the time of birth. Women in the childbearing years are particularly susceptible to iron-deficiency anemia because of the blood loss from menstruation and increased blood supply demands during pregnancy. Seniors also may have a greater risk of developing anemia because of poor diet and other medical conditions. There are many types of anemia. All are very different in their causes and treatments. Iron-deficiency anemia the most common type is very treatable with diet changes and iron supplements. Some forms of anemia like the anemia that develops during pregnancy are even considered normal. However, some types of anemia may present lifelong health problems. The classification of anemia depends on the evaluation of several hematological parameters, particularly the blood reticulocyte count this then yields the classification of defects by decreased RBC production versus increased RBC destruction or loss. Clinical signs of loss or destruction include abnormal minor blood smear with signs of hemolysis and elevated LDH, suggesting cell destruction, or clinical signs of bleeding, such as guaiac-positive stool, radiographic findings, or frank bleeding.

Causes The main causes of anemia are by blood loss, by decreased or faulty red blood cell production and by destruction of red blood cells. Red blood cells can be lost through bleeding and this kind of chronic bleeding commonly results from the following such as ulcers, hemorrhoids, gastritis and cancer. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as aspirin or Ibuprofen which can cause ulcers and gastritis. Menstruation and childbirth in women especially if menstrual bleeding is excessive and if there are multiple pregnancies. But with decreased or faulty red blood cell production in this type of anemia the body may produce too few blood cells or the blood cells may not function correctly. In either case, anemia can result. Red blood cells may be faulty or decreased due to abnormal red blood cells or the lack of minerals and vitamins needed for red blood cells to work properly. Conditions associated with these causes of anemia include the following: sickle cell anemia, iron-deficiency anemia, vitamin deficiency, and bone marrow and stem cell problems. Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder that affects mostly African-Americans. In this type of anemia the red blood cells become crescent-shaped because of a genetic defect and they break down rapidly, so oxygen does not get to the body's organs causing anemia. The crescent-shaped red blood cells also get stuck in tiny blood vessels causing pain Iron-deficiency anemia occurs because of a lack of the mineral iron in the body. Bone marrow in the