Presidential Election ( a mythmaking championship)
America is divided . If a Democrat is elected the U.S President, he has to offer his Рepublican opponent the VP Office – that’s the only way we can unite the nation. (My 2012 presidential election message).
1.1 How a President is Nominated and Elected
The national conventions of both major parties are held during the summer of a presidential election year. Earlier,each party selects delegates by primaries, conventions,committees,etc. At each convention, a temporary chairman is chosen. After a credentials committee seats the delegates, a permanent chairman is elected. The convention then votes n a platform, drawn up by the platform committee. By the third or fourth day, presidential nominations begin. The chairman calls the roll of states alphabetically. A state may place a candidate in nomination or yield to another state. Voting, again alphabeticaly by roll call of states, begins after all nominations have been made and seconded. A simple majority is required in each party, although this may require many ballots.
Finally, the vice-presidential candidate is selected. Although there is no law saying that the candidates must come from different states, it is, practically, necessary for this to be the case. Otherwise, according to the Constitution, electors from that state could vote only of the candidates and would have to cast their other vote for some person of another state. This could result in a presidential candidate’s receiving a majority electoral vote and his or her running mate’s failing to do so.
The Electoral College.
The next step in the process is the nomination of electors in each state, according to its laws. These electors must not be federal office holders. In the November election, the voters cast their votes for electors, not for president. In some states,the ballots include only the names of the presidential and vice-presidential candidates; in others, they include only names of the electors. Nowadays, it’s rare for electors to be split between parties. The last such occurance was in North Carolina in 1968. On four occasions (last was in 2000),the presidential candidate with the largest popular vote failed to obtain an electoral vote majority. Each state has as many electors as it has senators and representatives, plus 3 electoral votes from the District of Columbia as a result of the 23rd Amendment to the Constitution. On the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December, the electors caast their votes in their respective state capitols. Constitutionally they may vote for someone other than the party candidate but usually they do not since they are pledged to one party and its candidate on the ballot. Should the presidential or vice-presidential candidate die between the November election and the December meetings, the electors pledged to vote for him or her could vote for whomever they pleased. However, it seems certain that the national committee would attempt to get an agreement among the state party leaders for a replacement candidate. The votes of the electors, certified by the states, are sent to Congress, where the president of the Senate opens the certificates and has them counted in the presence of both houses on January 6. The new president is inaugurated at noon January 20.
Should no candidate receive a majority of the electoral vote for president, the House of Representatives chooses a president from among the three highest candidates, voting, not as individuals, but as states, with a majority (now 26) needed to elect. Should no vice-presidential candidate obtain the majority, the Senate, voting as individuals, chooses from the highest two.
1.2. Reality Check
The formal requirements for the Presidency, as the Constitution says, are simple: a candidate must be a natural-born US citizen, at least 35 years of age and a US resident for at least 14