1. KNOW how to recognise signs of abuse 1 :1 DEFINE THE FOLLOWING TYPES OF ABUSE
• Physical abuse • Sexual abuse • Emotional/psychological abuse • Financial abuse • Institutional abuse • Self-neglect • Neglect by others
1:2 IDENTIFY THE SIGNS AND/OR SYMPTOMS ASSOCIATED WITH EACH TYPE OF ABUSE.
1) Physical abuse is deliberate physical force that may result in bodily injury, pain, or impairment. Both old and young people can be physically abused. There are signs or indicators to show physical abuse and there are ways in which victims and abusers act or interact with each other.
Physical abuse includes the smashing of furniture and personal belongings, being pushed or shoved, being held against your will, slapped, bitten, kicked, pinched, punched, choked or ducked under water, threatened or hurt with a weapon, threats of violence, locked in or out of the house, hair pulled …burnt with cigarettes, acid, an iron, hot food or water.
Signs of physical abuse in adults are: bruising, particularly in well-protected and covered areas, fractures, sprains or dislocations, lacerations, burns - including friction burns and scalds, drowsiness, pressure sores, cowering and flinching, unexplained hair loss, significant weight loss, etc. Symptoms include feeling low, angry and in pain.
2) Sexual abuse is when a person is forced or tricked into taking part in any kind of sexual activity. When sexual contact is non-consensual, it is an abuse. It can happen to men and women of any age that is both old and young. It can include sexual penetration of any part of the body with a penis, finger or any object, sexual exploitation, making threats about sexual activities, exposure to pornographic material, touching of breast or genitals, kissing, etc.
Activities such as showing pornographic material, forcing the person to watch sex acts or forcing the person to undress are also considered sexual abuse.
The signs and symptoms of sexual abuse in the elderly can be bruises around breasts or genitals, genital infections, unexplained vaginal or anal bleeding, torn, stained, or bloody underwear, disturbed sleep patterns, vulnerable adult appears withdrawn and fearful, inappropriate dressing, etc.
3) Emotional Abuse is where one person gains power and control over another through words and gestures which gradually undermine the other’s self-respect.
Emotional abuse can be name-calling, blaming, screaming, making threats, yelling, neglecting, manipulation, not listening, withholding affection, belittling and untrue accusations.
Signs of emotional abuse are depression, anxiety, withdrawing or refusing affection, fearful or agitation, lower self-esteem and self-confidence, shouting or swearing, behaviours such as rocking, hair twisting and self-mutilation, vulnerable adult withdrawn and fearful.
4) Financial abuse is stealing or defrauding someone of money, goods and/or property, allowing others to steal money or property, tricking or threatening individuals into giving away money or property, withholding money, refusing to allow individuals to manage their finances, etc. for example when a support worker is taking money from a service users’ purse without his or her knowledge.
Signs of financial abuse are signatures on cheques that do not resemble the service users signature, or signed when the service user cannot write, unexplained withdrawals of large sums of money by a person accompanying the service user, lack of amenities, such as TV, personal grooming items, appropriate clothing, that the service user should be able to afford, deliberate isolation of service user from friends and family, resulting in the support worker alone having total control, the unexplained sudden transfer of assets to a family member or someone outside the family. Symptoms include the person feeling fearful, anxious, embarrassed and belittled.
5) Institutional abuse happens when the lifestyles of service