Case study (life history) – in-depth investigation of a single case (individual, group, or community). Concepts – abstract or symbolic tags placed on reality.
Control variable - third variable introduced to test the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
Cost-effectiveness - cost to achieve goals, outcomes (e.g. cost to reduce drug use among treatment program participants).
Cost-efficiency - cost per unit of work (e.g. cost to make an arrest).
Crime Index - Part I Uniform Crime Report offenses, including homicide, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny theft and motor vehicle theft.
Crime rate - number of crimes divided by population, per 100,000 population (or 1,000 population).
Evaluation research - measurement of the effects of a program in terms of its specific goals, outcomes, or program criteria.
External validity – accuracy in the ability to generalize or infer findings from a study to a larger population.
Field experiment – experiment conducted in a natural (field) setting.
Goals - long range outcomes.
History – specific events other than the treatment that during the course of a study may be responsible for producing the results.
Hypothesis - specific statement or prediction regarding the relationship between two variables.
Impact evaluation - examination of the relationship between outcome and input, activities and results of a program.
Inferential studies – studies that involve generalizing findings from a study group to a larger population.
Informed consent – agreement of subjects to participate in research after they have been briefed.
Internal validity – accuracy within the study itself.
Interviewer effect – Biases introduced by the interviewer.
Interrupted time series - multiple measurements at time points before and after the treatment.
Instrumentation – changes in the measuring instrument during the course of a study that invalidate comparisons.
Longitudinal study – study involving the collection of data over a period of time.
Masking effects – experimental treatments may have opposite effects on different kinds of subjects.
Methodology (methods) - collection of accurate facts or data; attempt to address the issue of "what is".
Mortality – loss of subjects over the course of time.
National Crime Survey (NCS) - victim surveys conducted by the Census Bureau on behalf of the Bureau of Justice Statistics. The survey consists of a rotating crime panel of 60,000 households.
National Incident-Based Reporting System - the unit-record reporting system used in the redesigned UCR in which each local law enforcement agency reports on each individual crime and arrest.
Needs assessment - enumeration of some activity or resource, for example, measuring the need for a particular service in some target area.
Null hypothesis - Statement of no difference between groups being compared or a statement of no relationship in the general population. In other words, any differences observed are due to random error.
Objectives - activities to achieve outcomes; results.
Objectivity - basic canon of research; approach to subject matter from an unbiased, ethically neutral or value-free perspective.
Panel study – a type of longitudinal study involving examination of the same select group over time.
Participant observation - temporary participation in group activity by researcher for the purpose of observing the group.
Policy analysis - study of the causes and consequences of government behavior.
Pre-post test experimental design - comparison of randomized experimental and control groups on outcome measures before and after intervention (e.g. drug use before and after treatment).
Pretest (pilot study) - exploratory test of an instrument on subjects who are similar to the group to be studied.
Probability sample - sample chosen by an equal