Prison: Scientific Method and Larger Population Essay

Submitted By vinsonvm
Words: 995
Pages: 4

Definition of Terms for CJ 540 Midterm

Case study (life history) – in-depth investigation of a single case (individual, group, or community). Concepts – abstract or symbolic tags placed on reality.

Control variable - third variable introduced to test the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.

Cost-effectiveness - cost to achieve goals, outcomes (e.g. cost to reduce drug use among treatment program participants).

Cost-efficiency - cost per unit of work (e.g. cost to make an arrest).

Crime Index - Part I Uniform Crime Report offenses, including homicide, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny theft and motor vehicle theft.

Crime rate - number of crimes divided by population, per 100,000 population (or 1,000 population).

Evaluation research - measurement of the effects of a program in terms of its specific goals, outcomes, or program criteria.

External validity – accuracy in the ability to generalize or infer findings from a study to a larger population.

Field experiment – experiment conducted in a natural (field) setting.

Goals - long range outcomes.

History – specific events other than the treatment that during the course of a study may be responsible for producing the results.

Hypothesis - specific statement or prediction regarding the relationship between two variables.

Impact evaluation - examination of the relationship between outcome and input, activities and results of a program.

Inferential studies – studies that involve generalizing findings from a study group to a larger population.

Informed consent – agreement of subjects to participate in research after they have been briefed.

Internal validity – accuracy within the study itself.

Interviewer effect – Biases introduced by the interviewer.

Interrupted time series - multiple measurements at time points before and after the treatment.

Instrumentation – changes in the measuring instrument during the course of a study that invalidate comparisons.

Longitudinal study – study involving the collection of data over a period of time.

Masking effects – experimental treatments may have opposite effects on different kinds of subjects.

Methodology (methods) - collection of accurate facts or data; attempt to address the issue of "what is".

Mortality – loss of subjects over the course of time.

National Crime Survey (NCS) - victim surveys conducted by the Census Bureau on behalf of the Bureau of Justice Statistics. The survey consists of a rotating crime panel of 60,000 households.

National Incident-Based Reporting System - the unit-record reporting system used in the redesigned UCR in which each local law enforcement agency reports on each individual crime and arrest.

Needs assessment - enumeration of some activity or resource, for example, measuring the need for a particular service in some target area.

Null hypothesis - Statement of no difference between groups being compared or a statement of no relationship in the general population. In other words, any differences observed are due to random error.

Objectives - activities to achieve outcomes; results.

Objectivity - basic canon of research; approach to subject matter from an unbiased, ethically neutral or value-free perspective.

Panel study – a type of longitudinal study involving examination of the same select group over time.

Participant observation - temporary participation in group activity by researcher for the purpose of observing the group.

Policy analysis - study of the causes and consequences of government behavior.

Pre-post test experimental design - comparison of randomized experimental and control groups on outcome measures before and after intervention (e.g. drug use before and after treatment).

Pretest (pilot study) - exploratory test of an instrument on subjects who are similar to the group to be studied.

Probability sample - sample chosen by an equal