Further complication occurs when the law of the land limits people or, in some cases, specific groups of people, in participating in the public sphere. Under the Islamic Republic, women have been placed in a state of total subservience. Women were highly objectified upon the imposition of wearing the hijab and eventually decreasing the value of their lives to half of men’s.3 Such conditions had taken away Shirin Ebadi’s judgeship and her significance in Iranian society. In Iran Awakening, Shirin Ebadi described her own struggle upon the revival of the Shari’a law that removed women’s basic rights and freedom. This cruel situation triggered the author to take action. In particular, Shirin Ebadi gave up her law career that earned her money and decided to take on pro bono cases.
Shirin Ebadi’s resistance against the Islamic Republic took the form of offering pro bono legal services. Her battles occurred in court rooms rather than public places. Pro bono legal services are free legal services offered by lawyers to clients. Specifically, her legal practice focused on defending