1.a. The transportation of both sodium and glucose into the cell is described as coupled transport. Coupled transport is the process of moving molecules in the same direction. In order for this to happen, there needs to be both sodium and glucose outside of the cell, with sodium concentrations being higher outside the cell. b. In order for the cell to maintain a low ICF [Na+] and high ECF [Na+] across the cell membrane, the cell has Na+/K+ antiport protein pumps. These antiport protein pumps actively transport ICF Na+ out of the cell, while pumping ECF K+ into the cell. This will allow for the cell to maintain a low ICF [Na+] and high ECF [Na+] across the cell membrane. c. The Na+/K+ antiport protein pumps create a large concentration gradient on each side of the membrane. This phenomenon increases the likelihood and occurrences of sodiumlinked glucose transport. 2.a. Cytochrome C is a protein in the Electron Transport Chain. The purpose of the Electron
Transport Chain is to produce ATP. This system is a chain of proteins that use high energy electrons to pump protons, or H+, which creates a massive gradient where there is a large concentration of H+ inside the intermembrane space and a low concentration of H+ in the mitochondrial matrix. At the end of this chain, there is ATP synthase, which synthesizes ATP using the force of the H+ diffusing back into the mitochondrial matrix.
Cyanide disallows the use of cytochrome C, therefore disallowing the cytochrome oxidase complex from pumping H+ into the intermembrane space. Because of this, there will be less H+ to drive the ATP synthase and so there will be less ATP produced. b. The cell will initially be able compensate because cytochrome oxidase complex is not the only protein pump. There are still the NADH dehydrogenase and the bc1 complex protein pumps. There will still be H+ to drive the ATP synthase, but not as much. c. Yes, the cell can still produce ATPs. In glycolysis, 2 net ATP are produced. In pyruvate oxidation, 2 ATP are made. In the Krebs cycle, 2 ATP and 2 FADH2 are made. The 2 FADH2 will be oxidized by ubiquinone and the electrons will be used to power the Electron Transport
Chain and produce 3 ATP. The total amount of ATP produced without the availability of the electrons gained from the oxidation of NADH is 9. 3. The biggest difference between all of the three processes is the presence of oxygen. With oxygen available as the final electron…