Prostate Cancer in African American Men Essay

Submitted By LHodolocke
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Running head: PROSTATE CANCER IN AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN

Prostate Cancer in African American Men
Lorie A. Hodo-Locke
N440
04/21/2014
Deanna Radford, MSN, RN, CNE

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PROSTATE CANCER IN AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN
Prostate Cancer in African American Men

In this presentation I will discuss Prostate Cancer in African American men and the

the higher incidence of occurrence more aggressively in this vulnerable group than

Non- Hispanic whites in America. I will discuss how biological, socioeconomic and

screening factors may be to blame in this population.

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According to Cleveland Clinic in the Journal of Medicine, “Prostate cancer is the most

common cancer affecting American men.

Around 2010, there was an estimated

217, 730 men who were diagnosed with and 32, 050 died of it.

African American are still disproportionately affected with

a prostate cancer incidence two- thirds higher than whites and a mortality rate

Owing to such disparities, the life expectancy of African Americans is

several years shorter than that of non – Hispanic whites” (Wu, 2012).

Prostate Cancer is expected to be one of the four most common cancers diagnosed

among African American Men and woman (breast, colorectal and lung as the other 3).

Cancer is defined by the American Cancer Society as a group of diseases characterized

by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells, if the spread is not controlled

PROSTATE CANCER IN AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN

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death may result.
CANCER

African

White Rate

Difference

Rate Ratio

21.7

31.4

2.44

American Rate
Prostate

53.1

This table shows a comparison of Cancer Deaths Rates between African Americans/Whites in
The US, 2005-2009.

An estimated 35, 430 cases of prostate cancer are expected to be newly diagnosed among

African American men in 2013, accounting for 37% of all cancers diagnosed in this group. 1 in

5 will be diagnosed in a lifetime. It is the second leading cause of death in African American

Men with an estimate of 4,980 deaths from it in 2013, according to the American Cancer

Society.

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A family history, ethnic origin and age are probably the greatest risk factors as predisposition

to Prostate Cancer.

There has been a link between sugar derived metabolites and cancer.

According to Professor D. Turner, assistant professor at the Medical University of South

Carolina, a common source of the AGEs that accumulate in our tissue as we get older.

They have been linked to diseases associated with aging such as diabetes, heart disease, and

Alzheimer’s disease. They cause increased inflammation and produce harmful chemicals

Known

as reaction oxygen species, which both promote cancer. AGE levels are found to be

higher in African American men with Prostate Cancer due to poor eating habits, obesity,

and sedentary lifestyles.

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Attempts to classify prostate cancer into separate groups of cancer, with different tumors

expressing different malignant potential and ultimately carrying a different prognosis.

Prostate cancer is staged as follows:

Stage A: The tumor is microscopic and intracapsular.
Stage B: The tumor is palpable on rectal examination but confined to the prostate.
Stage C: The tumor has extended beyond the capsule of the prostate.
Stage D: The tumor has metasized to distant organs.

It is

diagnosed by detection on a rectal examination, microscopic inspection of the prostate

tissue removed for the management of BPH (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia), and blood test serum
prostate-specific antigen and trans rectal ultrasonography.

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Demographics in the African American culture based on census in 2010, we are the second
largest group of minorities in the United States. Black men earned at least a high school diploma
(82 percent and 91 percent) than that of white non-Hispanic men in the U.S. The average
African