Test Prep Lab Study Guide
Welcome to our Test Prep Lab. Today we will be covering:
Genetic influence on disease OLD BOOK (pg. 68) | NEW BOOK (pg. 70)
Cancer OLD BOOK (pg. 76-80) | NEW BOOK (pg. 78-82)
Cardiovascular disease OLD BOOK (pg. 72-75) | NEW BOOK (pg. 74-77)
Smoking & Tobacco use OLD BOOK (pg. 72) | NEW BOOK (pg. 74)
Mental illness and social class OLD BOOK (pg. 88-89) | NEW BOOK (pg. 90-91)
HIV/AIDS (pg. 81-83) | NEW BOOK (pg. 83-85)
Effects of life events on levels of stress OLD BOOK (pg. 98) | NEW BOOK (pg. 103)
Chronic Strains OLD BOOK (pg. 102) | NEW BOOK (pg. 106)
Main effects vs. buffering effects OLD BOOK (pg. 105) | NEW BOOK (pg. 109)
Stress OLD BOOK (pg. 106-107) | NEW BOOK (pg. 110-111)
Sick-role OLD BOOK (pg. 147-148) | NEW BOOK (pg. 153-154)
3 Processes Activated by Perception of Pain or Illness OLD BOOK (pg. 143) | NEW BOOK
Five stages of the illness experience OLD BOOK (pg. 144) | NEW BOOK (pg. 150)
Labeling approach to illness OLD BOOK (pg. 150) | NEW BOOK (pg. 156)
Zola’s 5 social triggers OLD BOOK (pg. 155) | NEW BOOK (pg. 161)
Genetic Influence on Disease
Some disease and illnesses can be directly traced to genes, while others result from an interplay of genes and the environment. Cancer
Regarding the etiology of cancer
It is estimated that up to 90% of all cancers are environmentally induced or related.
Inhaling others' cigarette smoke can cause cancer.
There is a clear link between diet and cancer.
Regarding the 5 year survival rate of cancer:
Early detection is important and now highly possible for all types of cancer.
The 5 year survival rate for Prostate cancer is now 100%
Improved survival rates are due to both earlier detection of cancer and improved treatment effectiveness
The number one cause of death in the United States
About one-sixth of all people who die are under the age of 65.
Changes in diet are the primary cause of the dramatic declines in the death rate from heart diseases over the past several decades Tobacco Use
According to the World Health Organization, Tobacco is the single biggest cause of premature adult death throughout the world Mental Illness
People in the lower social classes have higher reported rates of mental illness due to stressful life experiences have more impact on those in the lower class
20-30 percent of the population experiences at least one of the mental disorders listed in DSM-IV(R) (not counting substance abuse) each year
Methods of transfer
homosexual activity heterosexual activity contaminated blood
HIV most often affects older men
While homosexual/bisexual men now represent more than half of AIDS patients in the United States, an increasing percentage of those with AIDS contracted the virus through heterosexual exposure. AIDS is most severe in Africa
The effect of life events on health is not large and usually does not persist over time.
3 Methods were used to determine effects of specific life events on stress level
Studies of psychiatric effects of specific events such as reactions to combat and natural human disasters
Comparison of the number and types of life events experienced by psychiatric patients PRIOR to their hospital admission to those for a nonpatient control group
General population surveys examining the relationship between life events, stress, and illness.
Chronic strains may lead to life events and vice-versa
Interpersonal conflicts within role sets
Main Effects vs. Buffering Effects
Social support influences stress and stress outcomes through both the main effects and buffering effects models
Studies by Kessler and Neighbors found that the effects of social class on stress vary