Arab Cultural Psychology
Hajj satisfies the fifth pillar of the faith. The pilgrimage consists of series of rites performing around de city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The rituals of Hajj are perfumed between the 8th and 13th days on the 12th month (Dhul Hajjah) of the lunar calendar.
Putting on the Ihram (obligatory)
During the Hajj, male pilgrims are required to dress only in the ihram. The ihram is a white, seamless garment. It consists of two pieces for men and one piece, a simple white gown, for women. It is the only garment that the pilgrim is allowed to wear during the performance of the hajj rituals. Man garment consisting of two sheets of white unhemmed cloth, with the top draped over the torso and the bottom secured by a white sash; plus a pair of sandals. Women are simply required to maintain their hijab—normal modest dress, which does not cover the hands or face. The Ihram is mean to show equality of all pilgrims, in front of God; there is no difference between a prince and a pauper. Ihram is also symbolic for holy virtue and pardon from all past sins. While wearing the Ihram, a pilgrim may not shave, clip their nails, wear perfume, swear or quarrel, have sexual relations, uproot or damage plants, kill or harm wild animals, cover the head [for men] or the face and hands [for women], marry, wear shoes over the ankles, or carry weapons. Putting on the ihram is accompanied by a total change of attitude that is a result of the pilgrim's intent (niyyah) to renounce the world for a more pious and humble life.
At the time of his or her entrance to Mecca, the pilgrim must already be clothed in the ihram. Some pilgrims do their ihram in Medina, some in Jeddah and some others in the neighboring towns to the east and south of Mecca. Entering to Haram
The Haram, an area of about three miles in width and eighteen miles in length, around the city of Mecca, is set aside for the rites of Hajj. Clad in ihram, the pilgrim enters the sacred haram and formally declares his or her devotion by repeatedly uttering the Talbiyah: “Doubly at Your service, O God”.
The pilgrims perform their first Tawaf, which involves all of the pilgrims visiting the Kaaba and walking seven times counter-clockwise around the Kaaba. They may also kiss the Black Stone (Al Hajar Al Aswad) on each circuit. If kissing the stone is not possible because of the crowds, they may simply point towards the Stone on each circuit with their right hand. In each complete circuit a pilgrim says "Here I am at your service O Lord, here I am. Here I am at Thy service and Thou hast no partners. Thune alone is All Praise and All Bounty, and Thine alone is The Sovereignty. Thou hast no partners." (Labbaik Allahumma Labbaik. Labbaik, La Shareek Laka, Labbaik. Innal Hamdah, Wan Nematah, Laka wal Mulk, La Shareek Laka) with 7 circuits constituting a complete tawaf. The place where pilgrims walk is known as "Mutaaf". Only the first three shouts are compulsory, but almost all perform it seven times.
The tawaf is normally performed all at once. Eating is not permitted but the drinking of water is allowed, because of the risk of dehydration due to the often high humidity in Mecca. Men are encouraged to perform the first three circuits at a hurried pace, followed by four times, more closely, at a leisurely pace. After the completion of Tawaf, all the pilgrims have to offer two Rakaat prayers at the Place of Abraham (Muqaam Ibrahim), a site inside the mosque that is near the Kaaba. However, again because of large crowds during the days of Hajj, they may instead pray anywhere in the mosque.
Although the circuits around the Kaaba are traditionally done on the ground level, Tawaf is now also performed on the first floor and roof of the mosque because of the large crowd.
Making the Sa'y
After Tawaf on the same day, the pilgrims perform sa`i, running or walking seven times between the hills of Safa and Marwah. This is a re-enactment of the frantic search for