Psy 390 Weel 2 Paper 2

Submitted By karenbowens
Words: 876
Pages: 4

The theory of B.F. Skinner was based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of an individual's response to events “stimuli” that occur in the environment. A response produces an effect such as defining a word, hitting a ball, or solving a math problem. When a particular Stimulus-Response “S-R” pattern was reinforced “rewarded,” the individual was conditioned to ignore. The distinctive attribute of operant conditioning relative to previous forms of behaviorism, connectionism, and drive reduction is that the person can emit responses as an alternative of only eliciting response suitable to an outside stimulus.
Reinforcement is the key element in Skinner's “S–R” theory. A reinforce is anything that strengthens the desired reaction. It could be verbal praise, a good grade or a feeling of increased achievement or satisfaction. The theory also covers negative reinforces any stimulus that results in the increased occurrence of a response when it is withdrawn different from aversive stimuli punishment that results in reduced responses. A great deal of attention has been given to schedules of reinforcement and their effects on establishing and maintaining behavior.
The most important principle of reinforcement theory is, of course, reinforcement. Generally speaking, there are two types of reinforcement: positive and negative. Positive reinforcement results when the occurrence of a valued behavioral consequence has the effect of strengthening the probability of the behavior reoccurring. The specific behavioral consequence is sometimes called a re-enforcer. Negative reinforcement results when an undesirable behavioral consequence is withheld with the effect of strengthening the probability of the behavior being repeated. Negative reinforcement is often confused with punishment, but they are not the same. Punishment attempts to decrease the probability of specific behaviors; negative reinforcement attempts to increase desired behavior. Thus, both positive and negative reinforcement have the effect of increasing the possibility that a particular behavior will be learned and repeated.
Fundamentally, there are two general types of reinforcement schedules: continual and intermittent. If a behavior is reinforced every time it occurs, it is called continuous reinforcement. Research suggests that constant reinforcement is the fastest way to establish new behaviors or to abolish undesired behaviors. Then again, this type of reinforcement is generally not convenient in an organizational setting. Therefore, intermittent schedules are frequently employed .Intermittent reinforcement means that each occurrence of a desired behavior is not reinforced. There are at least four types of intermittent reinforcement schedules: fixed interval, fixed ratio, variable interval, and variable ratio. Many American households include family pets as key members of the family unit. As a young family, considering the addition of pets, it is important to assess the type of pet he or she want to have not only his or her family needs but also the needs of the domestic animals he or she should consider. One key area of concern, for many parents, is the best method in which to train the new puppy or kitten. Understanding the importance of positive reinforcement, versus negative reinforcement through parents and children in training the new family pet more effectively
For many families, the decision to add a cat versus a dog, to the family unit, is often met with mixed debate. Each as a unique domestic animal, both are very intelligent and can be trained with the proper love and attention required of a new pet. Using classical conditioning, each type of domestic animal will respond well and