Psy Chapter 15 Essay

Submitted By gabriell_patefancey1
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Pages: 5

Psychology 130—Spring 2015
Outline May 6, 8 & 11, Chapter 15, Therapies

I. Therapy in general A. Definition 1. Treatment of emotional, behavioral and interpersonal problems B. Specific types of therapies: 1. Psychotherapy—based on the idea that problems stem from psychological factors a. treatment focuses on psychological intervention 2. Biomedical—based on the idea that problems stem from physiological imbalances a. treatment focuses on medication b. psychiatrists have MD degrees and can prescribe drugs c. psychologists, clinicians, counseling psychologists do not 3. Often psychotherapy and biomedical therapies are combined

II. Psychotherapy focuses on mental processes A. Reflect different perspectives in psychology that we have covered this semester 1. Different causes for problems > different treatments

III. Psychoanalytic therapy A. Freudian techniques B. Causes of problems lie in the unconscious C. Causes remain hidden and affect behavior and thinking D. Psychoanalysis focuses on revealing the hidden causes 1. Techniques a. Free association 1. Client encouraged to talk freely 2. Some guidance from therapist b. Dream analysis E. Other factors 1. Resistance—client becomes resistant as therapy gets closer to hidden and uncomfortable causes for problems 2. Transference—client unconsciously transfers feelings to the therapist a. Might think of the therapist as parent—can produce trust b. If the parent is the cause of problems—can produce anger 3. Length of therapy issues a. psychoanalytic therapy can produce dependence b. client does not want to stop therapy c. might even be afraid of what might happen without doctor/patient relationship d. some therapy is time limited—deadline to get better 1. short-term dynamic therapies 2. all parties agree to a wellness plan and goal 3. limiting time creates motivation to succeed

IV. Humanistic therapies A. Client-centered therapy—Carl Rogers (unconditional positive regard) B. The person is important, not the past or hidden causes C. Therapy focuses on encouraging the client 1. to express problems 2. to examine possible solutions him or herself 3. to recreate their self-perceptions D. Therapist 1. Does not steer client toward revealing hidden causes 2. Does not subjectively interpret client communication 3. Does not pass judgment E. Therapist qualities according to Rogers 1. Genuineness 2. Unconditional positive regard for client 3. Empathic understanding

V. Behavior therapies—Changing problem behaviors A. Behaviorists not interested in where problems come from B. Classical conditioning techniques 1. Counterconditioning—Mary Cover Jones a. Learning a new conditioned response that replaces the old one b. Peter's fear of rabbits 1. Rabbit in the room but far away 2. Peter eating snacks in his high chair 3. Over time, rabbit brought closer as Peter enjoyed his snacks 4. Eventually the rabbit was associated with enjoyment 5. Initial rear was replaced with enjoyment 2. Systematic desensitization a. Phobia—irrational fear b. Learn relaxation techniques c. Fear producing object introduced d. Relax e. Repeat f. Over time, fear is extinguished g. Spontaneous recovery can occur—this is not failure 3. Aversive conditioning a. Classically conditioning negative responses to harmful behaviors b. Alcoholism—Antabuse C. Operant conditioning techniques 1. Reinforcement for desirable behaviors 2. Punishment for undesirable behaviors 3. Token economies VI. Cognitive therapies—(incorrect or irrational belief is cause of problems) A. Rational-emotive therapist (Ellis)---ABCs—overhead 1. Activating event—an occurrence 2. Beliefs—perception based on beliefs of that event 3. Consequence—resulting negative feelings based on perception a. perception is the key, change perception and