Discuss why people do or do not exercise
People usually follow a program to derive the many benefits of exercise, including weight control, reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, reduction of stress and depression, enhanced self-esteem, increased enjoyment, and for the chance to socialize.
First problem is getting people started in an exercise program. Of people who start an exercise program, 50% will drop out within 6 months.
The major reasons why people drop out include a perceived (1) lack of time (69%), (2) lack of energy (59%), and (3) lack of motivation (52%).
People often cite time constraints for not exercising, such constraints are more perceived than real and often reveal a person's priorities.
Reasons why people have problems with exercise adherence:
The prescriptions are often based solely on fitness data, ignoring people's psychological readiness to exercise.
Most exercise prescriptions are overly restrictive and are not optimal for enhancing motivation for regular exercise.
Rigid exercise prescriptions based on principles of intensity, duration, and frequency are too challenging for many people, especially beginners.
Explain the different models of exercise behavior
1. Health Belief Model
Is one of the most enduring theoretical models associated with preventive health behaviors.
It suggests that the likelihood of an individual's engaging in preventive health behaviors (such as exercise) depends on the person's perception of the severity of the costs and benefits of taking action (Becker & Maiman).
Results have been inconsistent because it was developed to focus on disease, not exercise.
2. Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen & Madden)
Is an extension of the theory of reasoned action.
Suggests that the intentions are the best predictors of actual behavior. Intentions are the product of an individual's attitude toward a particular behavior and what is normative regarding the behavior (subjective norm).
Subjective norm is the product of beliefs about others' opinions and the individual's motivation to comply with others' opinion.
Perceived behavioral control is a person's perception of their ability to perform the behavior
3. Social Cognitive Theory
Suggests that personal, behavioral, and environmental factors operate as reciprocally(affect each other) interacting determinants of each other.
An increase in self efficacy (individual's belief in successfully performing a behavior) leads to increases in exercise participation. Helps predict exercise behavior which has been helpful for chronic diseases (diabetes).
4. Self-Determination Theory
Suggests that people are inherently motivated to feel connected to others within a social milieu (relatedness), to function effectively in the milieu (effectance), and to feel a sense of personal initiative in doing so.
Suggests that individual progress through stages of change and that movement across the stage is cyclic, rather than linear, because many people do not succeed in their efforts as establishing and maintaining lifestyle changes.
1. Precontemplation stage: Individuals do not intend to start exercising in the next 6 months. The individual may be demoralized about their ability to change, defensive because of social pressures, or may be uninformed about the long term consequences of their behavior.
2. Contemplation Stage: Individual seriously intends to exercise within the next 6 months. Usually remain in this stage for 2 years.
3. Preparation Stage: Individual is exercising less than three times a week, but not regularly.
4. Action Stage: Individuals exercise regularly but have been doing so for fewer than 6 months. Highest risk for relapse.
5. Maintenance Stage: Individual has been exercising more than 6 months. People in this stage were found to be more intrinsically than extrinsically motivated.
6. Termination stage: Exerciser has stayed exercising for 5