Kareem M. Edwards
Industrial Organizational Psychology/450
April 8, 2013
Krista Bridgmon, Ph.D.
Intelligence Testing Article Analysis
Intelligence is an expression that can be defined in a variety of ways; depending on the definition you choose, the word knowledge will be mentioned. The capacity to acquire and use “knowledge”; problem-solving skills and “knowledge” about the world are a couple of examples, while definitions like the ability to excel at a variety of task; or as a skill that allows us to understand, adapt, learn, reason, and overcome obstacles are other ways intelligence is described (Shiraev & Levy, 2010). Outside its cultural context it is hard to expressively explain intelligence because there are no questionnaires with proper questions meant for the purpose of gauging a person’s level of intelligence, not one the will have the identical meaning in each culture. These facts serve as a good foundation to begin a discussion of intelligence, theories, and methods for testing it.
Multiple Intelligences Theory
Three comprehensive sets of intelligences were purposed between the late 80’s thru mid-90’s by Howard Gardner, these possibly explains the entire landscape of social intelligence in these multiple intelligences theory, Gardner includes, “…linguistic, logical-mathematic, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal…intrapersonal…[and] naturalistic” (Klein, 1997, p. 377). Gardner goes on displaying his belief that, the definition of intelligences, are confined to bio-psychological impending process information that can be initiated in cultural situations to elucidate glitches and produce products that have worth in a given culture and nothing more (Goodnough, 2002). This links Gardner’s MI theory to the cultural grounding of cultural context based on the potential ability to solve problems of pertinent task in a specific cultural environment. Goodnough (2002) suggests that this definition, as well as the understanding of it through Gardner’s MI theory, are theoretical (by definition) and broad-based (by understanding) and influences a teacher’s, topical substance, course, lessons…strong points, and her weaknesses. However, Klein (1997) counters that the broad scope and all-encompassing The large-scale and wide-ranging approach of the MI theory refutes the relevance of the theory in regard to unambiguous schooling, according to Klein (1997). Gardner’s MI theory has served as a foundation to multiple new teaching practices, although they are plagued by the unspecific significance of it.
Traditional intelligence quotient (IQ) tests emphasize on analytical skills exclusively, leaving no room for contemplation of other types of intellect. This makes the utilization of test like the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS), which was founded upon the fundamental theory of planning, attention, simultaneous, and successive cognitive processes; (PASS), is built upon the discovery of exceptional and brilliant persons that normally would not be found using traditional IQ tests. A Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) test was conducted by Johannes, Kroesbergen & Naglieri (2005), on 51 Dutch children diagnosed with ADHD that revealed; even though ADHD influences their attention span and their planning scales scores where low, those deficits did not dictate their complete mental discrepancy in the areas of concurrent and consecutive reasoning responsibilities. Outdated, stagnant theory of intelligence represent the basis of traditional IQ test which depend on the connection among the test totals and the individual’s