PSYC 202 A V Cues Paper copy

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How Visual and Auditory Informational Cues Affect Memory and Learning
PSYC 202 - Research Methods
Lori McHattie

A vast proportion of research has been directed at the effects of modality on learning and memory. The purpose of this study was to look at the effects of auditory-visual, and auditory informational cues on learning. Seventeen participants from the University of the Fraser Valley Introductory Psychology courses were randomly assigned to two conditions, auditory-visual or auditory-only. Participants were presented with a presentation of 10 single-coloured shapes, and preceding this, were given a free recall test. It was hypothesized that participants in the auditory-visual condition would perform better than the auditory-only condition. The results of this study illustrated that there was no significant difference between the conditions, t(15) = 0.931, p > 0.05, p = 0.366, ns. It might be suggested that certain modalities is not influential to improve the effects of learning. Perhaps further research to test the information presented in the form of a task, might provide more information on modality effects.

Introduction Learning requires storing information in memory. It could be implied that the two go hand in hand; that learning is the result of memory. Without memory, learning cannot occur. Some researchers might believe that certain factors affect what is remembered and what is forgotten. Some researchers (Hardt, Nader & Nadel 2013; Van Dyke & Johns,2012; Dewar, Cowan & Della Sala 2007; Brown 1958; Peterson & Peterson 1959) might suggest that if the information is not used, it disappears or fades away (decay) or that new information replaces old (interference). The fact is that different types of memory are stored differently in the brain. Instead of focusing on how an individual forgets, the emphasis should be put on how one can better their learning. Many studies have been dedicated to research regarding the effects of retrieval practice on memory. But, how much repeated testing can be done to enhance one’s learning and recall? Perhaps the concern should be directed at the different types of informational cues used in the learning process. Better yet, could auditory and visual stimuli affect this learning process and is it an important aspect to recognize when learning something new or when something is already known? The aim of this study is to determine whether participants who are exposed to both visual and auditory information will perform better on a recall test than those exposed to only auditory information. To begin, it is important to address the fact that individuals utilize different modalities for learning. The learning styles of each person is unique to them and can include the use of one or more modalities to enhance their own learning and memory. Jensen (1971) looked at the reliability and validity of testing whether individual differences are affected by the presentation of information given visually or audibly since prior research has revealed that visual and auditory presentations, respectively, have been significant (Jensen, 1971). A large sample size of 150 undergraduate students were recruited for the study and were randomly assigned to four groups. Group AA were given a auditory memory test on each of two days and Group VV were given a visual memory test on each of two days. Lastly, Group AV and Group VA, were given either a auditory memory test on the first day and visual memory test on the second day, or vice versa depending on the group they were assigned to. A presentation of digits was displayed on a projector screen and the same presentation of digits was audibly presented by a recorded voice for the visual and auditory tests, respectively. Preceding the presentation, participants were either asked to perform an immediate recall or a 10s delayed recall of the digits. Results of this study illustrated that participants asked