Psych 310 Notes Essay

Submitted By bag0230
Words: 5474
Pages: 22

* What is psychology?
The science of the mind and behavior * * * Teachers of psychology
Experimental psychologist (research psychologists)- never have clients; found in industry, private research institutes, or universities
Applied psychologists- use studies from experimental psychologists to tackle human problems; found in hospital, school, corporations
Teachers of psychology- teach, research, and publish psychology; found in universities
Industrial psychologists- tailor the work environment to maximize productivity. Some market research and make programs to train employees * Sports psychologists- counsel and give support to athletes
Clinical counseling psychologists- work with patients who have problems with social and emotional adjustments or facing difficult situations
Phrenic psychology- work in correctional settings (jail, victims of crime)

Psychology vs psychiatry
Psychiatrists go to med school
Psychologist isn’t a doctor; just a “doctor of philosophy” ; not all of them can prescribe medicine (MUST go back to school and get a masters)
Pseudopsychology- horoscopes, entertainment; know the difference true and false things. These are UNSUPPORTED beliefs *
Critical thinking- thinking analytically 1. What is the source? 2. Is the claim reasonable or extreme? 3. What is the evidence? 4. Could bias contaminate the conclusion? * >conformation bias- biological in nature * >emotional bias- tendency to make judgments based on attitudes and feelings rather than the rational evidence * 5. Does the issue require multiple perspectives? * 6. Does the reasoning avoid common fallacies? * > common sense * >fallacies are when we rely on common sense *
Psychology’s 6 main perspectives PG 16 SCIENTISTS
1. biological perspective- physical causes for mental disorders
2. modern cognitive perspective- mental processes * >Who used introspection? introspection- notion of elements of consciousness; subjective * >Wundt’s observations: methods of science can be used to study the mind, as well as the body. Wanted to find a periodic table for the mind * >functionalism: historical school that believed mental processes could best be understood in terms of their adaptive purpose and function * >structuralism: this school of psychology was devoted to uncovering the basic structures that make up the mind and thought; sought elements of conscious experience * > cognitive psychologists research
3. behavioral perspective- sought to make psychology a * behavioral science * >Watson- believed that behaviorism should be the science of behavior and environmental conditions that influence behavior; didn’t care about how people were thinking or feeling, instead how they ACTED * >Skinner- behaviorist who believed that the mind is subjective and cannot be proved to exist * >called attention to the way our actions are modified by our consequences
4. Whole person perspective: psychodynamic, humanistic, and trait temperance * >Sigmund Freud (WEIRD)- person who founded the psychodynamic movement; sexist; physician & psychologist; heavily into the unconscious; founded the technique of personal unconsciousness; 3 parts of our ego: id (I want it & need it now; unconscious reservoir of energy), ego (conscious executive of the personality), then super ego (our conscious; guardian of morals and values)
Humanistic Psychology-clinical approach emphasizing human ability, growth, potential, and free will; Maslow and Rogers
>humanistic movement influenced counseling
>believed people have free will
>Carl Rogers- unconditional positive regard for others; “we need to understand that we are all humans trying to survive”; “don’t let your behavior define who you are”; talks about different types of self
>Abraham Maslow- hierarchy of needs
Trait & Temperament psychology
>Big 5: O- openness to new experiences C-consciousness;