I. Genetics/”life codes”: Codes in your genes run everything
Genes are made up of base pairs of nucleotides
Nucleotides are proteins - always paired together The first base pair is Adenosine-Guanine / The second base pair is Cytokine- Thymine Therefore a gene may be made up of 3k or 4k of these base pairs, which equals one gene.
46 Chromosomes in every cell except sperm and egg (sperm = 23 ; egg=23)
Chromosomes house the genes and are segments of genes
If there is a break in this code it will result in a mutation
c. Genes/carry all the instructions for making an organism.
Protein construction = genes M
Mutated genes= weird proteins=mutations
d. Behavioral genetics/”the impact of the environment on human genetics-mutations are alterations in gene sequences.
Smoking can cause this
TP-52 = lung cancer / All human cancers are genetic If you have a young man that is 18 or 19 and goes off to college and he gets stressed out and gets schizophrenia. Therefore the environment caused the stress.
e. Human genome/30,000.
On a chromosome they now know where there 30000 genes lie. What do these genes do though?
Multiple genes acting together to make behavioral change.
Human genome is what drives the way we look.
II. Twins-identical vs. fraternal:
Twins are studied extensively. Identical is one egg and one sperm that creates 2 people. Except for their fingerprints. One placenta taking care of two kids in development. Either two boys are two girls.
Twins run in families. Fraternal twins are two placentas. Two sperm, 2 eggs, boy and a girl. Nothing more than brothers and sisters.
a. Identical/single placenta-often have similar life experiences.
b. Fraternal-double placentas.
Identical twins are replicas of each other. Because they separated and re-met, it is most likely that they will be similar( same car, food preference)
c. Genetic relatives vs. environmental relatives (twins separated at birth).
a. Temperament = emotional excitability which persists over a lifetime.
Capacity to respond to a certain emotional excitability stays the same most of the time. However this can be changed by environment
b. Heritability-variation among individuals caused by genetic inheritance.
How we vary from each other
c. “Out of Africa”/20,000 years ago.- East Africa, we all began there.
Our ancestors migrated out of Africa. All humans have the same background/genetics/origins. Changes genetically are due to the environment over the years.
IV. Nature vs. nurture:
Nature --> genetic environment
Nurture --> impact of environment on genetics.
a. Humans have huge capacity to adapt to the environment (sign of health).
Longer capacity to adapt are less symptomatic. "Learning how to adapt is a great thing"
b. Nature-our genetic heritage-nurture the impact of the environment on our genes T.P./53.
Smoker/grandmother - example
c. Gene-environmental interactions=nature via nurture.
V. Molecular genetics-specific genes that influence behaviors (mood disorders-CA-Schizophrenia):
If your mother or grandmother had depression, it is most likely that the female will have it.
Male = aggressive, increase risky behavior, substance abuse, major depressive disorder triggers events outside but it from within. Alcohol/trauma can trigger a desire
VI. Evolutionary psychology:/Psychiatric
What evolution brings us. Evolution only works on populations not individuals
a. What makes us so alike as humans?
b. Evolution by natural selection-Charles Darwin.
c. Competition for survival.
d. Adaptation/organisms pass on their genes. Survival=better reproductive ability.
e. Natural selection. adapt to environment (survival)
VII. Research on the