Atkinson and Shiffrin’s three stage model explains the memory process from sensory memory to longterm memory. First, we record toberemembered information as a fleeting sensory memory. Then, we process information into shortterm memory, where it is encoded through rehearsal. Lastly, information moves into longterm memory for later retrieval.
Atkinson and Shiffrin’s model focused on how we process our explicit memories through conscious effortful processing. Other psychologists have updated the AtkinsonShiffrin model to include concepts such as working memory and automatic processing. The concept of working memory emphasizes the active processing that takes place in AtkinsonShiffrin’s shortterm memory stage. The two basic functions of active memory are the active processing of incoming visual and auditory information, and focusing our spotlight of attention. Chapter 9
Representing the nurture side of the argument, Skinner believed that language development could be explained by the learning principles of association, imitation, and reinforcement. Chomsky, on the other hand, represents the nurture side of the debate. He opposed Skinner’s ideas by proposing that the rate of language acquisition is so fast that it cannot be explained by learning principles. Therefore, most of it must be inborn. Chomsky also believes that all languages share some basic elements, which he calls “universal grammar”. He said that humans are born with a builtin predisposition to learn grammar rules.
This helps explain why preschoolers pick up language and grammar so well. Childhood is a critical period for mastering certain aspects of language before the languagelearning window closes. This window closes gradually in early childhood. By about age seven, those who have not been exposed to either a spoken or a signed language gradually lose their ability to master any language. Chapter 11
Psychologists define motivation as a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior. Our motivations arise from nature, the bodily “push”, and nurture, the “pulls” from our thought process and culture. The four perspectives useful for studying motivated behavior are instinct theory (evolutionary perspective), drivereduction theory, arousal theory, and
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Instinct theory, which is now replaced by evolutionary perspective, focuses on genetically predisposed behaviors.
is defined as a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned. Drivereduction theory focuses on how our inner pushes and external pulls interact. Arousal theory focuses on finding the right level of stimulation. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs explains how some of our needs take priority over others. Chapter 12
The three components of emotion are bodily arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience. Many psychologists developed theories about the connection between these components. The JamesLange theory is the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotionarousing stimuli. The CannonBard
theory is the theory that an emotionarousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion. The twofactor theory, also called the
SchachterSinger theory, explains that to experience emotion one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal. According to the JamesLange theory, arousal comes before emotion. Cannon and Bard concluded that our bodily responses and experienced emotions occur separately but simultaneously. Schachter and Singer believed that our physical reactions and our thoughts together create emotion. They describe in their twofactor theory that emotions have two ingredients: physical arousal and cognitive appraisal. Chapter 14
Stanley Milgram performed controversial experiments involving “teachers” shocking