Research Question: Does the depth of processing (double consonant check list or sentence making list) have an effect on memory in word recall?
Aim: To experimentally study the effect of shallow processing (double consonant check list) versus deep processing (sentence making list) on the retention of words from lists.
Shallow vs. Deep Processing is a study that enables participant’s short term memory. In their study, Craik & Lockhart examined how many words a participant would be able to retain from a list requiring minimal effort to complete versus a list requiring thought. They discovered that participants recalled more words from the deep processing list than the shallow processing list. The findings of Craik & Lockhart’s experiment were very essential in the field of memory in psychology. The current replication of their experiment is using a one-tailed hypothesis.
Experimental Hypothesis (H1): It is predicted that participants will recall a significantly larger amount of words from a list requiring deep processing than a list requiring shallow processing.
Null Hypothesis (H0): It is predicted that there will be no difference in the amount of words recalled from either the list requiring shallow processing or the one requiring deep processing.
This investigation was an experiment aimed to establish a causal relationship between the independent and dependent variables. A Repeated Measures Design (RPM) was used and both levels of the Independent Variable (Shallow Processing list & Deep Processing list) were administered to each patient. An RPM was used because the data was ranked and at least of an ordinal level. A setback with the RPM is that the participant can easily guess the aim of the study, however, an RPM allows for the comparison of data within each participant’s performance, thereby assuming all the participant’s individual differences.
The Independent Variable is the type of list. The two levels of the independent variable are a Shallow Processing list & a Deep Processing list.
The Dependent Variable is the amount of words recalled from each list.
The Control Variables were the experimenter, and the time of day in which the experiment was conducted.
All ethical principles consistent in work with human subjects were followed in this experiment. Informed consent and verbal assent was received from each participant prior to commencing the experiment. Also, each participant was informed about their right to confidentiality and their right to withdraw at any given moment. With the conclusion of the experiment, each participant was debriefed.
The materials used in this study are as follows:
1. Informed Consent
2. Standardized Instruction
3. Debriefing Note
4. Protocol (2 Lists)
6. Macbook for recording data.
Participants: A sample of nine (9) participants were selected using opportunity sampling. Opportunity sampling was done by selecting several students from the Syracuse University Project Advance Psychology Class of 2012 as well as some other students from Xaverian High School. The sample was homogenous in terms of age (mean age was 17.5) and gender. The participants were mostly from the Brooklyn part of New York and were predominantly Italian and Irish with a few participants of African American descent.
All participants were assembled in room 216 during the Psychology class and in the Technology Center
Each participant was asked to complete and sign the informed consent form.
Verbal assent was then obtained from each participant.
Participants were then read the standardized instructions (see appendix 2.)
Participants were given the IV1 (Shallow Processing List) and asked to complete it and recall as many words as possible.
Participants were then given the IV2 (Deep Processing List) and asked to complete it and recall as many…