Psych: Sigmund Freud and Theory Essay

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Psychological Perspectives
Biological Theory
This theory says that our personality is passed on to us by our parents just like our eye and hair color. Since the evolutionary theory says that personality traits and behaviors are inherited, this means that if we can draw well it is because it was inherited and not because someone practiced in order to draw well. This would have to be passed down from generation to generation (from our grandparents and so on). In the same way that our height and weight are determined by our genes so are our personalities and behaviors. These theories are saying that important components of personality are inherited. This means that this theory is determined by our genes and nothing else.
Cognitive Theory
According to this theory learning is a process which the learner takes in information from their environment and stores it in their long term memory for their future usage. Additionally, learning is observable and measurable, and manifests in the learners ability to recall and use information. Because the environment determines what the learner is exposed to, we have a passive role in the process. This theory shows that there are three stages of memory (sensory, short-term, and long-term) involved in retrieving information and then transferring it to store and then recall in memory later on. Sensory memory allows the learners to organize chunks of information; and temporarily hold them for processing. This is where the learner discriminates the usefulness of information, and whether it is worth processing. Short-term memory allows the learner to hold and to understand small amounts of information. Long-term memory allows the learner to remember and then apply their knowledge in specific learning environments and remember the information for large amounts of time after it is learned.
Meaningful learning and Schema Theory: This theory of learning is the process of knowledge construction in which learners seek to make sense of their experiences. This involves the processes of retention and transfer. Retention is the ability to remember material at some later time sort of in the same way it was presented during instruction. Transfer involves the ability to use what we have previously learned to solve new problems, and new questions, or store a new subject. Schema theory says that learning is the process of applying new information to already existing schemata. In this sense learning only occurs when the learner is able to incorporate the new information and apply it to a new situation that they are having. In both theories the learner plays an active role in the learning. In meaningful learning the role of the learner is to use the knowledge to solve problems and understand new concepts. The learner must also transfer his/her knowledge to new problems and new learning situations. In schema theory the role of the learner is to interpret incoming information based on their prior knowledge and experiences and apply it to the rest of their situations.
Humanistic Theory
Humanistic psychology developed during the 1950s as a reaction to the psychoanalysis and behaviorism that were the main schools of thought at the time. Humanistic psychology minimizes the effects of the unconscious mind, focusing instead on the uniquely human capacity to understand one’s place in the world and relationships with others. Many theorists had a perspective on this humanistic thoery but Carl Rogers was one of the first American therapist to provide the conditions of a humanistic therapeutic relationship. The idea that we are responsible for our own lives, this is showed in the work of Carl Rogers. Rogers approach was very optomisitic. Carl Rogers believed that the organism has one basic tendency and striving- to actualize, maintain, and enhance the experiencing organism. Carl Rogers believed that all people have a tendency toward growth, which was called actualization. Actualization is the need to enhance and